MGMT study guide
Organizational Behavior and Opportunity Organizational behavior – individual behavior and group dynamics In organizations It Is the field of study devoted to understanding, explaining and improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations Times of challenge (call to competition, request of battle) or change (transformation or modification of an organization and its stakeholders) Lead to opportunities (favorable times or chances for progress and advancement) Human behavior variables: Jobs, work design, immunization, performance appraisal, organizational design and organizational structure Internal: understands behavior through the factors inside the person.
Interprets behavior through thoughts and feelings External: understands behavior through the factors outside the person.
Interprets behavior through external events and environmental factors Interdisciplinary Influences on organizational behavior Engineering: the applied science of energy and matter Psychology: the science of human behavior Anthropology: the science of human learned behavior Sociology: the science of society Medicine: the applied science of healing or treatment of diseases to enhance an individuals health and well-being Management: the study of over seeing activities and supervising people In organizations Behavior in times of change In times of change people often become rigid and reactive, rather than open and responsive See the opportunity in change Have a positive attitude Ask questions Listen to the answers Be committed Sad Organizations as an open system Four major internal components that come together for a purpose People: the human resources of an organization
Tasks: an organizations mission, purpose, or goal for existing Technology: the tools, knowledge , and/or techniques used to transform inputs and outputs Structure: the systems of communication, authority and roles, and workflow Internal components interact with external components in the environment ‘OFF Customers Vendors Formal organization – the official, legitimate, and most visible part of an organization Informal organization – the unofficial and less visible part of the system Six focus organizations 1. Nettling, Inc. 2. Ford Motor Company 3. Oracle Corporation 4. Group 5. Tyson 6. Quitting 7. 8.
The Challenges of Change Globalization Workforce diversity Ethic Religion Gender Ethical behavior 9. 10. Six Sigma – a philosophy for company-wide quality improvement Characterized by Customer-driven approach Quantitative decision making A priority of saving money 11. 12. 13.
Challenges to Managing Organizational Behavior Increasing globalization of organizations operating territory Increasing diversity of organizational workforce Continuing demand for higher levels of moral and ethical behavior at work 14. 15.
Learning About Organizational Behavior First, the science of organizational behavior requires the mastery of a certain body of objective knowledge from research and scientific activities Second, the practice of organizational behavior requires skill development based on knowledge and an understanding of yourself Third, both objective knowledge and skill development must be applied in real-world settings 16. 17. 18.
19. 21 . Chapter 2 – Challenges for Managers 23. Competitive challenges Globalization the firm’s operations Leading a diverse workforce Encouraging ethical behavior, character, and integrity Fostering technological innovation 24. 25.
Hypotheses Typology – Understanding Cultural Differences Individualism vs.. Collectivism Low power vs.. High power distance Low uncertainty vs.
. High uncertainty avoidance Masculinity vs.. Femininity Short-term vs.. Long-term orientation US is the first of all these Technological change is one of the keys to strategic competitiveness, but it is also complex and risky.
Expatriate managers -a manager who works in a country other than his/her home country Diversity – all forms of individual differences, including gender, culture, age, ability, personality, religion, economic class, social status, military, and sexual orientation 70% of workplace is whites 14% Hispanic 11% African American 5% Asian Glass ceiling – an intangible barrier that keeps women and minorities from rising above a certain organizational level. Ethical Issues compound the complex challenges of management, and involve things such as: White-collar crime Computer use Employee rights Privacy issues related to technology Drug testing Free speech Downsizing/layoffs Due process HIVE/AIDS Sexual Harassment – unwanted sexual attention Gender harassment: crude comments, behaviors that convey hostility towards a particular gender Unwanted sexual attention: unwanted touching, unwanted pressure for dates Sexual coercion: demands for sexual favors through Job-related
Organizational Justice: Distributive Justice: fairness of the outcomes that individuals receive in an organization Procedural Justice: fairness by which the outcomes are allocated in an organization Companies in danger vs.. CEO salaries Competence and skill vs.. Race and gender Whistle-blowing: an employee who informs authorities of the wrongdoing of his or her company or coworkers (public hero vs.
. Villain) Social responsibility: the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways Chapter 3 – Personality, Perception, and Attribution Individual differences – the way in which factors differ from one individual to another Abilities Personalities Perceptions Attitudes Values Ethics International Psychology – a psychological approach that says: In order to understand human behavior, we must know something about the person and about the situation.
Equation of behavior B = f(P,E) Personality – A relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior Core Self Evaluation – a broad set of traits describing one’s self concept Locus of control Self-efficacy: beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectively Prior experiences and prior success Behavior models (observing success) Persuasion Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities Self-esteem: feelings of self-worth Self-motivation: the extent to which someone is calm, cool and self-confident (as opposed to (anxious, depressed or insecure) Positive affect: an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general Negative affect: an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general Self-Report Questionnaire – assessment involving an individual’s responses to questions.
Example: Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ([email protected]) Extroversion / Introversion Thinking / Feeling Preference Judging / Perceiving Preference Most American managers exhibit Myers-Briggs Sensing / Intuition behavior or that of others Internal attribution – attributing success to ability or effort External attribution – attributing success to sources beyond your control Impression Management – process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them Name dropping Appearance Self-description Flattery Favors Agreement with opinion Social Perception Perceiver Characteristics Familiarity with target Attitudes/Mood Self-concept Cognitive structure Barriers Selective perception Stereotyping First-impression error Projection Self-fulfilling prophecies Target Characteristics Physical appearance Verbal communication Nonverbal cues and Intentions Situational Characteristics Interaction context Strength of situational cues Fundamental Attribution Error – tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behavior Self-serving Bias – tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes