Opd Organizations Planning and Design
Stock ownership for employees d. Strong pressure of group norms 6. Key components of organization design contributing to successful new product innovation are: a. specialization, boundary spanning, and horizontal linkages. b.
formalization, hierarchy, and organic structure. c. pecialization, formalization, and standardization. d. homogeneity, top management support, and incremental change.
7. Which innovation technique is commonly used in organizations to decide which projects should receive the necessary funding? a. Product champion b. Stage-gate development funnel c. Intrapreneurs d.
Product team structure 8. In which part of the stage-gate model would a proposal be reviewed in terms of its technical feasibility or its fit with the organizational strategy? a. Stage 1 b. Stage 2 c. Gate 1 d. Gate 2 .
To retain innovative R&D scientists, an organization can: a. adopt a mechanistic structure. b. establish a joint venture. c.
have “dual ladder” promotion systems d. adopt TQM. 10. In Greiner’s model of growth, the phase of growth through development of internal systems is followed by a crisis of _____. a.
control b. autonomy c. red tape d. leadership 11. The decision of the management team at NASA to adhere to the “no safety of flight” rating of the foam problem is a reflection of: a. escalation of commitment b.
ognitive dissonance c. projection d. representativeness 12. All of the following can improve the quality of NASA’s decision-making except: a. listening to dissenters.
b. engaging in groupthink. c. Establishing focused cross disciplinary problem solving teams d. Amplifying ambiguous threats. 13.
Given the principles of escalating commitment, in which situation described below would you give the greatest funding to the same program in 2010? a. After you funded the program in 2008, it turned out to be very profitable. b.
After another manager funded the program in 2008, it turned out to be very profitable. c. After you funded the program in 2008, it turned out to be a “loser,” showing actual prospects of failing.
d. After another manager funded the program in 2008, it turned out to be a “loser,” showing actual prospects of failing. 14. Which of these is NOT a lesson from the NASA case? a. Causes of failure in large-scale complex systems can be organizational, individual or technical. b.
Large organizations need to guard against the tendency to downplay ambiguous threats. . All organizations should be structured like the Tiger Teams in Apollo 13, so that they can respond to critical conditions quickly d. Both continuous learning and efficiency are important for all organizations. 15.
Which of these is NOT necessary for building learning into the system: a. A collective mindset for responsible whistle-blowing b. No punishment for honest mistakes in blowing the whistle c. A quick procedure for solving a problem once highlighted d. A shared operational and routinized mindset