A Case Study of Lubaga Division Background

The eastern boundary of the division is Kampala Central Division. Sample Division lies to the north of Lubing Division. Neighborhoods in the division include Momentum, Nanette, Language, Abuses, Lubing, Mongo, Mongolia, Lullaby, Lugar, Abuses, Unshakable, Kabuki and Jaywalk.

The area is made up of 302,105 people who are either employed or unemployed, married couples single parents and a great number of this population are the youth.

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The area has been devastated by unemployment, diseases like malaria, typhoid and particularly HIVE and AIDS. Though Uganda has registered outstanding achievements in the fight against AIDS with a decline in prevalence rates from 35 per cent in the early sass to 7 per cent in 2005, Kampala city council authority report reveals that impala district alone is so much affected. The fish mongers are the most affected population lying between 27%-30% prevalence rates and these are closely followed by sex workers at 27%. He study carried out by Alliance of Mayors send Municipal Leaders on Hive/Aids infection in all the five divisions of Kampala namely; Kampala Central Division, Sample Division, Lubing Division, Manikins Division and Angina Division, targeted potential places that host key populations including bars/ night clubs, hotels or lodges, streets brothels, stages for truckers and abode stages.

Lubing in reticular had 21. 9% of the female sexual workers.

Hive was also found increasing among uniformed offices with frequent and unplanned transfers,poor accommodation,alcohol consumption, sex for favors and widow inheritance fueling the pandemic Among the hundreds of thousands of people who live in slums of lubing division, many migrated from their rural home to escape poverty, only to counter hardship and exposure to Hive/aids. The Hawkers, domestic workers,biodegradability among turban dwellers, are involved in other activities like pick-pocketing, stealing, drug selling or prostitution.

Lubing division and its villages like Nanette, Lugar, Mongolia, Momentum, Kibbutzim among others contains some of the capital’s most populous informal settlements where houses are built so close together that the families lack privacy. Frustration of being born out of poverty pushes many family members into desperation and end up becoming drug abusers, buyers and sellers of sex at various areas and spots hence becoming vulnerable to Hive infection.

Women are particularly vulnerable to the pandemic, as commercial sex is often their option for the survival of their families.

The married have little power to negotiate condom SE with their spouse so they end up being infected. Erne stigma still attached to Hive in Uganda means many women, even when they know their Hive status never disclose it to their husbands for fear of being abandoned. The mobile nature of the slum families also prevents them from adhering to the RAPS. Rhea often travel far to find work and new people move in to replace them. Patients in distant areas become hard to be reached by the health workers.

This means means that Hive awareness messages need to be constantly recycled through counseling and assassination made about the dangers of the epidemic. Due to the fact that many people are illiterate, they cannot read messages about Hive prevention and this gives a challenge. So the counselors have to take up that role of effective communication with the people they are helping to understand fully their Nay of living. There is negative preaching by both religious leaders in the area and the belief in Ninth craft which is rampant.

Many have been preaching that prayers can cure Hive Nile others spend time blaming witch craft for their ailments and aggravating their situation so it is through counseling that family break ups characterized by infidelity hat they will be helped to be rebuilt and united. Statement of the problem rhea Ministry of health in conjunction with other Non governmental organizations have promoted Hive Counseling for the last 15-20 years as a way of promoting functional marital life.

However, the increased spread of Hive among married couples, has resulted into unstable marital relationships, This has led to break up of marriages, severe increase of Hive among the married due to lack of counseling, poor levels of disclosure among the married and infidelity. Thus all these create a gap that the researcher seeks to investigate in the study. Objectives General objective or investigate the relationship between Hive counseling and marital life and come up Ninth adequate counseling techniques.

Specific objectives or investigate the nature of Hive counseling services offered to the married. Too examine the nature of marital life as related to Hive counseling.

To analyses the effect of Hive counseling on marital life. or come up with an adequate technique that will address Hive issues in marital life. HIVE testing and counseling HIVE testing and counseling (ETC) services have helped millions of people learn their HIVE status and for those testing positive, learn about options for long term care and treatment.

In 2010, WHO estimated 95 million people in low- and middle-income countries received HIVE testing and counseling in the past 12 months and learned their test results. The development and use of rapid, point-of-care HIVE tests in the late sass have facilitated expansion of HIVE testing services.

These rapid tests can be performed with a finger-prick blood sample collected and processed by a trained community worker and can be conducted outside of health facilities and traditional testing sites. Use to more than one rapid test can provide immediate, on-site confirmation of test results.

Innovative and creative approaches to service delivery have been implemented in numerous countries, including testing in the home, mobile and outreach testing in the community, “moonlight” testing during evening hours in high-risk settings, and in schools, workplaces, religious facilities, and transport hubs. Recognizing the importance of disclosure to family members and sexual partners, many countries have also introduced “couples testing and counseling” where couples can learn their results together, with the assistance of a rained counselor or health worker.

Sharing surrogates allows couples to plan, make important life decisions, including making HIVE prevention choices, and to seek care and support together.

Services targeting other groups have also been introduced, Including for adolescents and people from key populations, such as services for sex Norse, injecting drug users, and men who have sex with men and transgender people. It is imperative that these services are provided within a context of respect, non-discrimination, and protection of privacy and confidentiality. Home-based testing is also expanding in many countries.

Home testing may be used to offer testing to the family members of patients enrolled in care and treatment or may be offered on a door-to-door basis for all members of a community. Such door-to-door testing has now been implemented in many countries with generalized epidemics, including Uganda, Kenya, Lesotho, Zambia, and others.

WHO has issued guidance on ETC soon after first HIVE tests were developed in 1985. Since that time, WHO has issued guidance on all forms of HIVE testing. WHO has defined five key components?the “5 CSS”?that must be respected and adhered to by all ETC services.

These components are: Consent Confidentiality Counseling Correct test results Connection/linkage to prevention, care and treatment. More information on standard testing strategies is available in the 2012 WHO document: Service Delivery Approaches to HIVE Testing and Counseling (ETC): A Strategic ETC Programmer Framework. Co What is HIVE counseling? Counseling in HIVE and AIDS has become a core element in a holistic model of health care, in which psychological issues are recognized as integral to patient management.

HIVE and AIDS counseling has two general aims: (1) the prevention of HIVE transmission and (2) the support of those affected directly and indirectly by HIVE. It is vital that HIVE counseling should have these dual aims because the spread of HIVE can be prevented by changes in behavior. One to one prevention counseling has a particular contribution in that it enables frank discussion of sensitive aspects of a patient’s life?such discussion may be hampered in other settings by the patient’s concern for confidentiality or anxiety about a Judgmental response.

Also, when patients know that they have HIVE infection or disease, they may suffer great psychosocial and psychological stresses through a fear of rejection, social stigma, disease progression, and the uncertainties associated with future management of clinical management requires that such issues be managed wit consistency and professionalism, and counseling can both minimize morbidity and reduce its occurrence. All counselors in this field should have formal counseling training and receive regular clinical supervision as part of adherence to good standards of clinical practice. Capture frame work Aims of counseling in HIVE infection Prevention Determining whether the lifestyle of an individual places him or her at risk Working Ninth an individual so that he or she understands the risks Helping to identify the meanings of high risk behavior Helping to define the true potential for behavior change Morning with the individual to achieve and sustain behavior change Support Individual, relationship, and family counseling to prevent and reduce psychological morbidity associated with HIVE infection This article has been adapted from the forthcoming 5th edition of BBC of AIDS.

The book will be available from the BMW bookshop and at http://www. BMW]books. Mom/ Towards universal voluntary HIVE testing and counseling: a systematic review and meta-analysis of community-based approaches Share Print Authors: Amanita B. Sutra, Nathan Ford, Pamela J. Bacchanals, Vincent J.

Wong, Jay S. Raja, Alex K. Salesman, Leeway Jose, Dad O. Fakery, Reuben M. Gracing, Reusable K. Ingénues, Rachel C.

Bagley Publication details Editors: PLOPS Med Publication date: 13 August 2013 Languages: English Downloads Read the Journal article PLOPS Med Abstract Effective national and global HIVE responses require a significant expansion of HIVE testing and counseling (ETC) to expand access to prevention and care. Facility-based ETC, while essential, is unlikely to meet national and global targets on its own. This article systematically reviews the evidence for community-based ETC. Background Three decades into the AIDS epidemic, about 34 million people (most living in resource-limited countries) are infected with HIVE, the virus that causes AIDS.

Every [ear another 2.

2 million people become infected with HIVE, usually through unprotected sex with an infected partner, and about 1. 7 million people die. Infection Ninth HIVE, which gradually destroys the CDC lymphocytes and other immune system ells that provide protection from life-threatening infections, is usually diagnosed by looking for antibodies to HIVE in the blood or saliva. Disease progression is subsequently monitored in HIVE-positive individuals by counting the CDC cells in their blood.

Initiation of intergenerational drug therapy?a combination of drugs that keeps V replication in check but that does not cure the intention?is recommended when an individual’s CDC count falls below 500 cells/Pl of blood or when he or she develops signs of severe or advanced disease, such as unusual infections.

Neat Causes Families to Break Up? Y Sunny Hussein There are many reasons that families break up. It is something that is hard for the adults concerned and also for any children in the family. Break ups can be hard for even grown children going through the break up of their parents.

I’m going to talk about a few of those things what causes families to break up, as well as some tips to avoid this kind of thing happening in your family. The first and main thing which may cause a break up is infidelity. This is something that often hurts both partners in the relationship.

The cheating partner may go through a lot of feelings of guilt, while the ratter that was cheated on may feel deeply hurt and may even blame themselves… ‘What did I do wrong? ", "Why doesn’t he/she love me? ", etc. A second thing what causes families to break up is excessive arguments.

In today’s world, where often times, both partners have to work outside the home, even if they have young Children, stress levels get high.

Both partners may feel exhausted from work, then come home and have to share the responsibilities of the household, as well as caring for the children… Leaving little time or energy to nurture the relationship, and sometimes even to Just relax. If there are problems with finances..

. Not enough money coming into the household to cover expenses, this can be another issue of tension.

All of these things can create very high stress levels for both partners which will be more prone to argue. One more thing what causes families to break up is the abuse of another family member in some form. In most cases of this kind, the break up is for the best for all concerned unless some adequate form of therapy or other help is provided. There are different kinds of abuse, including verbal, physical and sexual.

Some types of abuse are worse than others. So what can you do to prevent some of these problems from happening in your relationship? Communication is the key to any good relationship.

It is important to communicate with your partner. Know what their needs are, and try to provide them, even if it means hiring a sitter and setting aside special time for you to be together. It’s better for your wallet to suffer a little than your relationship. Communication is important not only to know your partners needs, but to make family based decisions that can become added stress if it is put off.

Encourage family activities. That doesn’t mean that you have to go out and spend to of money going to a theme park, sports game or some other outing.

It can mean spending an hour or so an evening a few times a week playing a board game, or Matching a movie as a family. It is best if the whole family can be together during these times, but it is something that should be practiced even if the whole family can’t be involved at the same time. I hope you now have a better understanding of Neat causes families to break up and some things you can do to prevent that from happening. Want to repair your relationship like magic? Check out my product review! Also read my article 10 Signs of a Cheating Spouse.

Article Source: http://Centralizes. Inexpert=Sunny_Hussein Handbook tort improving HIVE testing and counseling services Handbook for improving HIVE testing and counseling services [PDF, 3. Iamb] Overview rhea past decade has seen a rapid global scale-up of HIVE testing and counseling through a variety of approaches, including provider-initiated testing and counseling as part of medical care, and client-initiated testing and counseling, often called adulatory counseling and testing. As important as expanding services is, this should not be done at the expense of good quality of services.

Quality is as much a “people” issue as a “technical” one.

To obtain a coherent, functioning quality management system that addresses national, substantial, facility and community concerns, it is important that quality be monitored, improved and evaluated at each level with the active involvement of all stakeholders. A range of quality assurance and quality Improvement methods have been applied in health care over the past two decades in middle- and low-income countries. Deciding on which one to use for ETC will depend on the country context, commitment of policy-makers and programmer managers, as

Nell as the complexity of problems that need to be addressed. WHO has worked with international and country level partners to develop a tool, the Handbook for improving HIVE testing and counseling services (WHO 2010) which can be used at any level of the health care system to implement a process to address problems identified by providers of HIVE testing and counseling services. When a family breaks up, it is difficult for everyone involved.

Sometimes, family breakups happen after long periods of fighting and unhappiness. At other times, they happen suddenly and it is hard to understand why.

Family relationships change as a result of the split and there is often a lot of adjusting to do. Family breakups affect people differently Everyone affected by the family breakup will have their own feelings about the situation. You may feel: Upset Relieved Angry with the person who decided the family can no longer live together.

The family split may be even harder for you if you have to move house as a result. This is especially true if you have to move from your area, and change schools or lose touch Ninth friends. Common concerns Family breakups can lead to a number of concerns over:

Fighting between your parents Discipline issues Disputes with brothers and sisters rhea need for time and affection from both your parents rhea need for greater independence if you are a teenager Setting into trouble for various misdemeanors How the breakup is affecting other family members. Making sense of the breakup There are some things you can do to try and make sense of the family breakup. Ask [Our parents why they have decided to stop living together. Think carefully about En is the right time to ask this question.

If someone is upset or emotional, it may ¶e best to wait until hey are calm.

Tell your parents who you would prefer to live Ask your parents not to take you aside individually to talk about their problems with each other. Try to maintain your relationship with each parent separately. Talk to other family members about how you feel. It will take a long while for you – and everyone else in the family – to adjust to the change in the family relationship.

Everyone in the family will also need to make an effort to make things work. It may help to talk to someone outside of the family People you can talk to include: A counselor – for example, a school counselor

A telephone counseling service – for example, Kids Help Line or Lifeline. These services will give you the chance to talk through your distress, confusion and grief over the family breakup. You are not alone Every year over 14,000 children and young people contact Kids Help Line about family relationship concerns. Many children have tried to speak to their parents or other family members but have either been ignored or had their concerns minimized.

Some children find it difficult to raise problems with their family. Others need help to make sense of their concerns before they approach family members.

Sometimes, kids phone because there is no one else to turn to. Which parent to live with If your family breaks up, it will have to be decided which parent you will live with. Some of the possibilities are: One of your parents will have sole custody and you will live with that parent. Your parents will share custody.

One parent will have custody of you for the majority of the time. The other parent will have access visits a certain number of times each week, fortnight or month. If your parents live far apart, you may find school holidays are the time you catch up with the parent you don’t live with.

If your parents can’t agree who should have custody Sometimes, parents are able to work out custody arrangements themselves. At other times, they need the help of the Family Court to make this decision.

If custody is decided by the court: Your point of view will be taken into account. The older you are, the more your opinion will count. You will be able to talk too Family Court counselor, if you need to talk to someone outside of the family about the breakup. If {o are unhappy about a custody arrangement, it is a good idea to talk to someone about your feelings and find out what your options are.

Sometimes, it is good to talk to someone who is not personally involved with your family.

What is family counseling Family counseling is a type of psychotherapy that may have one or more objectives. It may help to promote better relationships and understanding within a family. It may be incident specific, as for example during a divorce, or the approaching death of a family member. Alternately, it may address the needs of the family when one family member suffers from a mental or physical illness that alters his or her behavior or habits in negative ways. Counseling for families often occurs with all members of the Emily unit present.

This may not always be the case.

A Tamil member who stutters from alcoholism or drug addiction might not attend sessions, and might actually be the reason why other family members seek out counseling. Part of the goal of the therapist is to observe interactions between family members. Another part is to observe the perception of non-interacting family members. Thus if two family members get into an argument in a session, the therapist might want to know how the other family members are dealing with the disagreement or the way in which the two fighting members comport themselves.

In addition to observation, the therapist often helps the family reflect on better ways of communicating with each other. So family counseling may in part be instruction and encouragement.

In fact, it often teaches family members new and more positive ways to communicate to replace old, negative communication patterns. Observations may also be used to point out how poor communication, especially when particularly filled with strife, affects the behavior and happiness of children. Children benefit from the safe forum of a session. They may get to for discuss the things they don’t like about behavior of caregivers and/or siblings.

Such discussion might not be permitted in the home setting.

As in group counseling, the therapist also acts as moderator in family counseling. He or she attempts to ensure that each family member gets fair time for expressing concerns and contributing to the conversation as to how the family can do better. Sometimes the therapist may identify one or more family members who need more than the counseling model, and might benefit from individual therapy. The personal issues of one member of a family may affect all other family members. The therapist may identify that the family cannot progress to a better relationship format

Introit some individuals receiving more help, and possibly medication. A family member with a bipolar chemistry may want to be a better parent, but may be physically unable to change radical mood swings without a combination of individual therapy and medication.

Family counseling may not take a long time to complete. Often families benefit from four to five sessions. Sometimes families require more help and might need 20-30 sessions to resolve significant or ongoing family issues. For families, therapy often helps because it involves a disinterested third party who does not favor any one member of the family.

This is generally why a therapist for one family member will not agree to be a counselor for the client’s family. Display of partiality can render the counseling ineffective.

Different theoretical models exist in family counseling. A therapist may work from a behavioral stance, from Gestalt principals, or from a combination of therapeutic approaches. Whatever the approach, the main goal continues to be to improve the relationship of each family member to the others, so that the family progresses as a harmonious unit. rhea study adopted a multifaceted design comprising both quantitative and qualitative (participatory approach) methods.

The entire sample size from the two districts constituted 96 household respondents.

Others were ten (10) key informants No were from the two districts’ and national government officials and officials from non-governmental organizations. Throughout the entire exercise, the study maintained the framework of an evidence-based approach. The findings showed that commercial sex and general increase in the levels of promiscuity are highly linked to the emergence of risky behavior due to desperate and crude income-seeking mechanisms that have led to the reported rising rates of HIVE infection in the region.

In Northern Uganda, about 44,000 people commute to the urban places at night for security where many have reported numerous cases of sexual exploitations. Moreover, there is a high level of HIVE and AIDS awareness among and inadequate HIVE assassination and counseling programmed for the effective management of the AIDS problem in the region.

Thus, a strong and applied legal framework is needed to bring to book quickly and severely, culprits of the sex crimes of rape, defilement and sexual exploitations. But more importantly, the country as nation needs to build democratic institutions for conflict, resolution.

This will go a long way in proactively reducing the occurrence of armed conflicts, hence, contributing significantly to socio-economic development HIVE and AIDS affected families in Mask District, Uganda, in order to design appropriate and culturally specific HIVE and AIDS interventions to these families. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed to gather data in Baklava and Kuwait sub-counties in Mask District, which were selected as case study sites. rhea study revealed food (88. 9 per cent), clothing (81.

5 per cent), beddings (79. 6 per cent), school fees (46. 3 per cent), shelter (46. Err cent), and medicine/drugs as their major needs. Moreover, poverty was found to be the major constraint that forced the female – headed households with PLEA and AIDS affected families to sell crops and animals, and use past savings from their small-scale businesses as a coping strategy.

rhea study recommended, among other things, strong involvement of local governments and civil society organizations to facilitate the efforts of female – headed households, support supervision to be in place, coordinate partnerships, and establish model programmed targeting vulnerable groups through capacity building. Nosiness Grin (1992).