An International Marketing Report for Original Source
Australia is one of the countries that can offer suitable market conditions, In particular Eastern Australia and the coastline target market.
There are many proactive motives for Original Source to enter the foreign market incrementally using a specific concentration strategy. These are to increase their market size and in turn their profitability, increase their competiveness within the global market and also access new ideas for product ranges. Through environmental and SWOT analysis, the clear environment of Eastern Australia is represented.
Original Source should use a Wholly-owned subsidiary strategy to attract the target market and penetrate the foreign market. Furthermore, the company will use appropriate 5-year international marketing objectives and suitable product and service mix decisions. 1.
1 Introduction Original Source is a company brand operating within the British owned PZ Cussons Group Ltd. Specialising in consumer goods and personal health care products. The company paid ? 11. 3 million to acquire the Original Source brand in 2002, five years after it was created with an investment of just ? 5,000. (Funding Universe, 2010) The ? 680 Million UK Soap, Bath and Shower Product Market (Mintel, 2009) is very competitive with 37 separate companies (Mintel, 2010) including large companies such as Johnson and Johnson Ltd and Proctor and Gamble Ltd, all producing similar shower and bath products to Original Source.
The company differentiated itself from the competition by using solely natural plant oils and fruit extracts. They produce these as much as possible from the local environment reducing any unnecessary carbon footprint.
They also work closely with the Aromatherapy Trade Council and Vegan society. PZ Cussons trade on multiple continents including Europe, Africa and Asia however Original Source is currently only trading in the UK. Therefore it is an ideal company to explore for possible international expansion. Original Source bases their brand identity on being a funky, cool and intense experience adopting vibrant colours.
Using these unique selling points in successful TV advertising and press campaigns to target customers who are open to new experiences.
Their products include shower gels, shower pouches, body scrubs, shaving gels, shampoos and conditioner using a variety of unusual ingredient mixes. These include: Mint and Tea Tree, Lime, Grapefruit, Capsicum and Gingerlily for instance. Their core mission statement is based on the physiological and psychological benefits of the ingredients. Original Source (2008) see showering and bathing, as “not being a routine” and employees must always “use senses to discover intense experiences using natural ingredients. ” Also they avoid being, “wasteful and never tire in looking for new products, ingredients and packaging.
The objectives of this report are to determine whether international expansion into a foreign market is viable for Original Source and to establish if so, which country would be the primary target of expansion to create a strong international position. Additionally this will include an analysis of the firm’s internal and external environment and the existing foreign market. Consequently marketing decisions can be made, resulting in the creation of marketing objectives and a comprehensive foreign market entry strategy. 2. 1 Internationalisation
Becoming an International company is an expensive exercise in terms of money, management time and commitment. Doole and Lowe (2001) suggest that, “international marketing is establishing manufacturing facilities overseas.
” Original Source was created in 1997 and has not yet gone beyond the UK despite being a successful band within the bath and shower product market. It is a desirable brand hence why it was obtained by PZ Cussons 5 years after in was created. The PZ Cussons Group already has distribution networks and manufacturing facilities in, Asia, Europe, Australasia and Africa.
Including facilities in the UK, Poland, Thailand and Indonesia. Original Source can use a network approach to help them enter foreign markets in a stronger position.
They would have to continue to gain added value and a competitive advantage, however being a distinctive brand they are already successful at differentiating themselves. There are many proactive motives for Original Source to internationalise, these being: as a result of ‘managerial push’, to explore foreign market opportunities, for maintained profit and growth and to continue to drive forward.
Firstly Original Source states “they never tire of looking for new experiences. ” If they capitalised on international expansion it can potentially provide a more profitable market for them. That in turn can increase their competitiveness and allow them to access new ideas, especially in relation to new ingredient choices.
Also when considering Solberg model (1997) in regards to global expansion, Original Source are still an adolescent company. However they are in a global market in regards to bath and shower products.
Expansion should definitely be considered, mainly due to their successful growth but also because they are able to compete with Dove and Lynx (Unilever) who are also established brands internationally. They have changed there packaging and marketing techniques on numerous occasions, but they have always retained a very clear and distinctive branding which is successful at standing out from competition. The ‘Mint and Tea Tree’ is one of their classics and a perfect product to enter into a foreign market.
Original Source shower gel is also available online on the British Supermarket website, where unsolicited orders are being received from British ex patriots.
The Uppsala approach explains how a company should first grow in their home market, saturate it with its products, before internationalising to another foreign market, penetrating there and globalise further. Original Source have grown within the UK from having a product range of shower gels, bath foams, shampoos and conditioners, male shaving oils and most recently shower pouches.
Original Source now has a product portfolio that can succeed internationally. Original Source can also anticipate the need to become an international company, as they sponsor UK Athletics. In two years time and the spotlight being on Great Britain due to the 2012 London Olympics, it could be a good place to start attracting brand recognition and interest.
3. 1 Foreign Market Segmentation and Targeting The “most significant international marketing decision for most companies is how they should enter new markets” (Doole and Lowe, 1999).
Before a foreign market is chosen country screening should take place so suitable locations and market sizes can be found. It is chosen that Original Source will consider the Uppsala internationalisation model. Here they will intensify commitments to additional markets in small incremental steps gradually choosing other geographic markets, with small psychic distances.
(The sum of differences between languages, cultures and political systems for instance. ) The product life cycle of Original Source shows that they need a new market to try and penetrate as they have saturated the UK market with their ortfolio of products. “The company must determine whether to concentrate resources on a limited number of markets, or diversify across a number of different markets” (Hollensen 2004, p236). Original Source provides low volume and high repeat-purchase products. From the policy of the company, Original Source requires unique resources for the product and benefits if the customers have some knowledge of the goods.
Therefore, the concentration strategy is better for the brand. This strategy can allow them to concentrate its resource on one market as well as maintain its high consumer loyalty.
To choose the most ideal foreign market the following market screening process were undertaken. Looking at the intense experience products Original Source create it would be ideal to focus on an demographic who have similar skin and lifestyle in respect to hygiene to that of the UK, this will reduce the market risk. For example: Australia, New Zealand, USA or other Western European countries. Building on this, “language is the most important component of culture” (Hall, 1976) choosing countries that speak the same language would make it easier to succeed.
According to the company mission statement regarding using natural resources, Australia and New Zealand are more beneficial for Original Source to target. In particular tea tree, macadamia nut oil, lavender, mint and eucalyptus is readily available. However it has been decided that the targeting will begin at focusing on Eastern Australia and the coastal regions to gain recognition before expanding further. Targeting here is more ideal due to the population sizes (see Appendix A) and the similar Anglo Saxon culture.
Hollensen (2004) suggests that “decision makers are likely to explore first those overseas market opportunities perceived as having some similarity with opportunities in the home market.
” There is also the potential demand for the shower gel range in Australia, as successful competition of intense experience shower gel with natural resource and clever marketing barely exists. Only traditional brands like Australian Organics Aroma Spa, Natural Instinct and A’ kin are available. PZ Cussons already has presence within Australia through Imperial Leather, so Original Source would be able to exploit distribution channels and agents.
Original Source (2008) stated, “there’s a world out there that needs exploring, with extreme experiences that push your body to its limits. ” Adverts and marketing campaigns that focus on extreme sports/experiences would not have to be significantly altered due to Australia having a large sports culture and a large backpacking community. Hollensen (2004) discusses that, “it’s important to hold onto similarities across borders.
” Also the principles Original Source follow regarding natural oils were derived from traditional Australian outback remedies first catalogued by Ellen Wakeman in the 1850’s. . 1 Environmental Analysis The country’s political and legal systems are stable and democratic and through legislation Australia are trying to show a strong commitment to providing businesses with the right conditions to grow. In 2006, the OECD cited, “Australia’s business friendly regulatory environment is undisputed. Australia’s approach to regulation as a best practice benchmark for other OECD countries.
” Australia has also been identified as having the fewest restrictions on product markets and the least restrictive impact of business regulation on economic behaviour.
These business friendly conditions will provide Original Source with a good opportunity to establish itself. Australia has a flat tax rate of 30% on businesses; something that Original Source would have to pay. The Australian Government does offer tax breaks to business to try and stimulate foreign direct investment. However as Original Source is a relatively small company it would probably not stimulate the levels of income and employment for it to be beneficial enough for the government to offer tax breaks. This however is not so much of a problem as Australia’s flat tax rate is a low rate compared to their GDP.
Australia is the ninth lowest taxing country in the 30 member OECD, with its tax revenue as a percentage of GDP being 30. 8 per cent compared to an OECD average of 35. 8 per cent” (OECD 2008). Since the start of economic downturn investment in the expansion of companies has been very risky especially as the majority of peoples expenditure has dropped. This has affected the way in which people buy beauty and personal care products and/or the frequency with which they are used.
This has threatened companies like Original Source, as there is a perceived lack of value for money for natural or organic products.
From the primary data collected we found the are target market in Australia are more influenced by the price of their beauty products compared to whether the products are natural or organic, this has been further compounded by the economic downturn. It is estimated that, “14million adults believe natural/organic alternatives to be overpriced” (Mintel). This is something that Original Source will encounter to some extent when trying to move to the Australian market. The Australian market however has managed to deal with the economic downturn relatively well due to government measures. The Australian economy was ranked the most resilient in the Asia-Pacific region in 2009 and as one of the four most resilient globally” (IMD, 2009).
This is a massive opportunity for Original Source to reduce risk in the internationalisation of the brand. This is backed up by the IMF World Economic Outlook who said, “Australian recession looks like it will be smaller than in much of the rest of the developed world. Indicating that Australia will recover more quickly in 2010 and with higher growth than the US, UK and Eurozone. This could be key as products even if they are seen to be natural and organic are an elastic product and therefore effected by price, which is compounded further in times of economic downturn. In terms of running a business, “Australia is considered one of the least costly countries in the industrialised world” (KPMG, 2008) having substantially lower building, energy and also wage costs than other industrialised countries (Mintel) this is another opportunity that Original Source could take advantage of. Original Source has a target market of the younger generation and Australia’s population suitably satisfies this.
See Appendix B) However as you can see the nation is getting older. Original Source need not worry too much but they may wish to look into strategies of making their products more accessible to the older markets so that if the trend does carry on this way it does not affect the company’s growth. Original source is part of PZ Cussons Group, which is hugely beneficial, as the company would not have to lose percentages of their profits to an agent or anyone else they may have needed if going in completely new. PZ Cussons is a very strong brand in the UK (see Appendix C). As of 2009 they held a 15% market share (Mintel).
This is not just Original Source but they are one of the driving forces behind the company’s strong position in the UK market. Original Source provides massive strengths when trying to break into a new market. The company will be able to produce large amounts of money to fund it, which would be important when it comes to the crucial part of getting the brand known. As seen in Appendix D the company receives high levels of trust, and also a likelihood of recommendation by its users. This is good for the current market but the hurdle Original Source has to climb is getting the brand known.
Original Source spent ? 2.
2million on advertising within the UK, using 43% of this money on outdoor advertising activities, 42% on press advertisements and the rest on TV commercials (Mintel). Original Source would have to look at spending a lot more if they were to branch to Australia. In researching customer preferences and buying habits we undertook a primary data survey, targeting 40 Australians via the internet and it asked about basic: product use patterns, product feature preference and shopping habits. (Survey Monkey, 2010) Those that answered questions were predominately 16-24 years old, 77. % were female and 80% of respondents answered that they do partake in extreme sports. The needs of showering produced very interesting results in the fact that 60% of respondent’s regularly feel the feel of cleanliness affects their mood during showering.
Price was the biggest factor that influenced the loyalty to the brand (71. 4%), closely followed but discounted offered (64. 3%), product function (42. 9%) and its aesthetics (39. 3%).
The main point influencing purchase decision was aesthetics and design (78. 6%) followed by the ability to see the products contents (64. 3%). The last question was, “what does ‘Original Source’ mean to you? Answers included: intense, cool, natural ingredients, tingly, local, cleansing, brightly coloured, extreme, funky all of which fits the company’s profile and what they stand for perfectly. Some had been in contact with the product before. The Australian climate varies considerably, in terms of temperatures, the annual mean for 2009 was 29.
45 °C (Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology, 2009), this combined with high rates of sun and ozone problems presents Original source opportunities at a later stage to diversify their product into the sun care and after sun market (See Appendix G).
The natural produce that is indigenous to Australia is vast and all have unique properties, in particular mint and tea tree. The extent of the list (see Appendix E) shows that Australia could be a great resource to not only reproduce existing product lines that are successful in the UK, but develop and invent new mixes and products. This means that potentially the company would manufacture in Australia after a trial period as investing in a manufacturing plant would be very risky at early stages.
Cross cultural studies have shown Australia and the UK having very similar stand points in areas such as health consciousness and ‘green’ issues; however Australia seem to be regarded as a more ‘laid-back’ society (Mintel). Australia also has a high participation rates within sports as almost one in three (29% or 4.
7 million people) of the population aged 15 years and over participated in organized sports and physical recreation activities twice per week (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006).
These points are important when considering how Original Source could integrate into the Australian society as they have similar views as the UK and also in terms of marketing the products they have the opportunity to go the same route as the UK with sponsoring sporting events. Australia has a huge amount of income come in from tourism especially travellers. Since the beginning of the decade international travel to Australia has increased at an average rate of 2. 6% per annum.
In 2008-09, the UK continued to be Australia’s most valuable inbound tourism market, accounting for 13. % of TIEV (Tourism Research Australia, International Visitor Survey, 2009). One of the most important aspects is what existing products are in the market, which will untimely be completion for the product. There are six main players, all of which offer similar but fundamentally don’t offer what Original Source can. They are called ‘A’kin Aromatherapy Body Wash’, ‘Natural Instinct Body Wash’, ‘Australian Organics Aroma Spa’, ‘Aveda’, ‘Nature’s organics spa fruit sensations body wash’ and ‘Palmolive Naturals’ (See Appendix I).
A’kin Aromatherapy Body Wash’ tries to source everything locally like Original Source and costs approximately ? 7. 50 and comes in a 225ml container, which is far more expensive than Original Source. Another competitor is ‘Natural Instinct Body Wash’ whom claim to cleanse and revitalise your body and assures to be Vegan friendly, free from animal derivatives, artificial fragrances, petroleum, artificial colours, harmful detergents for example. A 250ml bottle costs $7. 95 approx ? 4.
80 per bottle which again is more expensive. Its packaging is also outdated to attract our target market. Australian Organics Aroma Spa’ and ‘Aveda’ are very similar products in terms of content however ‘Organics Aroma Spa’ is Australian made where as ‘Aveda’ is a global brand and has offers such as get 5 free samples with every internet order, however it is very expensive at ? 15 for 250ml. ‘Palmolive Naturals’ and ‘Nature’s organics spa fruit sensations’ are both lower priced alternatives, however they target an older market. Original Source does have competition in certain areas however does gain a competitive advantage over most rivals in terms of pricing and has potential in regards to its aesthetic brand and packaging.
This is strength as the research has pointed towards price as being the most influential factor when purchasing. It is also important to mention that Original Source needs to be wary about the traditional Aboriginal culture and acceptance from the elderly. Also there are no laws in Australia on natural products; anyone can advertise they are ‘organic’. 5. 1 International Marketing Objectives The final objective in the Australian market should be to introduce them to the intense shower experience with the added benefits from the natural ingredients in a way in which it is enjoyed, physiologically and psychologically.
Original Source is expected to become the future market leader or obtain significant market share in the personal healthcare category. However, in the current circumstances, the 5-year international marketing objective for the Australian market is to: use a specific product mix, designed especially for Australian consumers; that seeks to build brand awareness of Original Source and create a loyal customer base, whilst beginning to make profit. Table 1 shows the specific objectives: Time| Stage| Objectives|
Year 1Year 2| Preparing stage| Additional market research, substantial portfolio design for the Australian market, Check UK advertising suitability in Australian market| Year 3Year 4| Awareness stage| The product mix launched, brand awareness building, Sponsoring extreme sports event| Year 5| Promotion stage| Own a group of loyal consumers, market share increasing steady, Potential manufacturing plant expansion| Table 1: Original Source 5 Year International Objectives The 5-year plan is derived from the brand research and SWOT analysis.
PZ Cussons Australian branch has rich local technology, experience and supply chain in the similar market. It saves Original source a lot of time and cost in the preparing stage, so we would decide to spend only 2 years to go from nothing to successfully settling in the foreign market. Original Source aims to create a brand image that it is about, “getting raw materials from local resources,” which determines its localising marketing strategy.
The Australian product mix should be designed by using the local resources and technology.
When calculating the ROI and cash flow cycle, there is no set objective relating to recovering the investment within 5-years, this is because of the current threat of the financial crisis being fully taken into account. On the contrary, due to the similarity in socio-cultural factors, there is a small cultural and language barrier in promoting Original Source. It’s optimistically estimated that Original Source could build its brand awareness and brand loyalty within two years because of the strength in the democratic political system and open economic policy. 6. 1 Foreign Market Entry Strategy
When entering the Australian market, Original Source needs to decide on how much it needs to adapt its marketing strategy, as it will “affect every aspect of their business for many years ahead” (Doole and Lowe, 1999).
There are several general ways to develop markets on foreign soil. These include: “exporting products and services from the country of origin; entering into joint venture arrangements; licensing patent rights, trademark rights, etc” The mode choice framework (see appendix H) is used to work out foreign market entry strategy and methods. Wholly-owned subsidiary is the foreign market entry methods chosen for Original Source.
It is the highest level of company’s involvement in a foreign market and belongs to the direct investment in foreign production part. Data has been selected and analysed as followed to make the decision. We collected both quantitative and qualitative data by using two kinds of methods.
First-hand information was derived via a questionnaire (see appendix.. ). The secondary information was searched on websites and from reports. The filtered data was used to analyse the firm and environmental factors that influence the desired mode characteristics: “control, dissemination risk, resources, flexibility, and ownership” (Hollensen, 2004).
From the firms perspective, PZ Cussons has a long history in developing within the Australian market since it bought the Preservene Soap Company in 1976 (PZ Cussons Australia), there are already 9 main brands successfully launched in Australia and they contribute to be the strongest profit in PZ Cussons Asia: Imperial Leather, Pure, Pearl products which all fall within the same personal care and soap category as Original Source. Due to the PZ Cussons Group having extensive experience in Australia. Original Source may join the Australian branch and use its ripe supply chain and sales pipelines directly.
One of the most important features and selling points of Original Source is it being, “full of natural ingredients. ” The products “contain either pure and natural essential oils or natural extracts” (Original Source, 2008) and are produced in the selling country. The strategy of the Original Source brand is concluded as: to use the local production of 100% natural ingredients, for everyone to enjoy the natural life.
To follow this strategy, a series of a new product mix should be designed and produced especially for the Australian target market by using local raw materials for example tea tree oil.
This requires high autonomy, the strong R;D capabilities and the supporting manufacturing plants in Australia would lead to the minimising in manufacturing costs and freights. As can be seen from the environmental analysis, there are huge amount of sports participation and backpackers in Australia who could be absorbed into the potential users. Firstly, they appreciate and enjoy the product concept. Secondly, Australia’s social-culture is quite similar; and could be seen as even more open and passionate than the UK and therefore it is possible for the Australian market to accept the innovation.
In addition, the effectiveness of information transfer is definitely high thanks to the little difference in the language barrier. Finally, from the analysis done political and economic factors look to support the growth of businesses within Australia. From the analysis of the firm and environmental factors the next stage can then be looked at in terms of the 5 key characteristics in Entry Mode Model. These being: * Control -The control power of decision-making should be strong enough to ensure the full autonomy of product design, R;D, marketing, and selling process. Flexibility: Although marketers always hope that they can react to emergency situations as soon as possible, changing entry modes time to time is not conducive to the stable development of Original Source. Meanwhile, PZ Cussons’ ripe experience in Personal care and soap Category increases the market’s safety.
* Dissemination risk: As a product-uniqueness-based brand, Original Source’s R;D capabilities and technological security are of great importance. That is the reason why the independence of R;D department is emphasized. * Ownership: There is no doubt that Original Source should have a high degree of ownership.
Original source could control its business strategy only when the firm equity participation is higher than 50%. * Resource commitment: Resources are usually viewed within two specific categories: Strategic and Tactical, including the financial, physical, human resources, etc.
Australian Branch of PZ Cussons Group has the high commitment of resources for Original Source to share. Appendix H shows the different performances of 5 characteristics in 3 entry modes and it is clear that investments mode meets almost all the elements feature.
We should decide the exact entry method from 3 options: assembly operations, company acquisition, and wholly-owned subsidiary. As mentioned above, PZ Cussons has a mature Australian branch and production lines. For saving costs and maintain Original Source’s own style, we suggest to join the Australian branch and share all the resources together.
So the wholly-owned subsidiary, as one form of direct investment to the foreign market, is regarded as the suitable foreign market entry mode. 7. 1 Product/Service Mix Preparation
In terms of the product mix preparation original source should release a fairly low range of products, including shower gels and shampoos. Original source should start off with a small concentrated range of products to ensure that the Australian public capture what original source stand for. It will be key to strategically release more and more products from the product life cycle to ensure that the company portfolio is continually in the growth stage and doesn’t enter the maturity or decline stages. This can be done in terms of new flavours and also new ranges so introducing the skin care ranges and also look to introduce a sun care range.
The ingredients for the produce should obviously be sourced locally to echo Original sources ethos, but also be the flavours that help represent Original source the best with innovative, bright and funky colours and smells. The products that represent this best is the Mint, Lavender, Lemon and Tea Tree range all of which come in vibrant colours, offer a different showering experience and can be locally sourced. The introduction of these specific products can help to capture both the male and female population but also position the product similarly to how it’s positioned in the UK.
In terms of packaging it is key to make the product 100% recyclable and also have the packaging see through so that the vibrant colours and aesthetics are clearly seen. This does run the risk of alienating the older generation similarly to the UK however for Original Source to maintain its core values and not have the perception of their brand diluted this is something they will have to stick to.
In terms of Promoting the product there are three main ways that Original Source should go about this.
Firstly a comprehensive advertisement campaign using the advertisements in the UK should be run looking at finding prime time viewing for when are target market is watching. This can help original source save money as they already have all the advertisements already. Another are that Original Source will look to advertise through is through the sponsorship of sporting events in particular extreme sporting events such as one of the numerous surf competitions which can help to increase a brand association with extreme experiences and also help to reach are target market.
Finally the offering of free samples through visiting Original sources website is one way that original source managed to strengthen their brand image in the UK. For people to gain free samples they had to go on the original source website and would therefore have a little look around which allowed Original source to flag up key points they wished to reinforce about their company and what they stand for.
Due to language and similar cultures the name original source stands for the same thing and will be something we would keep however if the product does go into other markets this may be something that may need to be addressed. Throughout the internationalisation of this product the Original source brand, product and symbolic attributes have been very much standardised. Marketing standardisation is the undifferentiated use of the same marketing mix in all countries as opposed to adaptation where different marketing mixes are used for each country.
Considering the opinions of Meffert and Bolz (1993) Original Source should use marketing standardisation. Due to the globalisation of industries many firms can no longer depend on home markets for sufficient scale economies and to create a global portfolio.
The standardisation of Original Source in terms of brand name, packaging size, contents and advertisements in Australia standardisation can occur. The symbolic attributes of Original source in terms of its name, colours they use and brand ethics are best standardised as these points are some of the company’s strongest selling oints. One place where adaptation will take place is the product range, although Original source will be replicating the produce they already have on offer it will be key that it is locally sourced so will differ there. This is very important as this is one of the brands main aims and part of the mission statement so if it was to be found that they were not locally sourced then people could be confused what are brand stand for and also lose trust in the brand and there ethics.
Also the pricing strategy may have to be adapted as Original sources competitors charge a considerably lot more, although that could be seen as a good thing especially during an economic downturn it may be that original source are perceived to be cheap and low quality so a mid range price strategy should be employed so that original source are still cheaper than their competitors but not priced so low they are perceived to lack quality.
The advantages of standardisation are better economies of scale in R;D and marketing, the convergence in tastes and consumer needs, stock cost reduction, global competition and easier communication, planning and control this is only in the instance of Australia.
When internationalising to other countries of different cultures, political systems and language adaptation would be a better alternative. In terms of internal marketing this would be relatively low as Original source would be selling their products in supermarkets so would not themselves have that many frontline staff that would need to be educated on the company and the products.
This means that the marketing has to be even more successful as the consumer will often only have what they have heard about the product to advise them, as we would not be able to have any frontline staff in the supermarkets informing consumers of our products, ethos and company. 8. 1 Conclusion CONCLUSION!!!!!!!!! NEED TO ADD SURVEY MONKEY IN References BOOKS Doole, I. and Lowe, R.
(2001), International Marketing Strategy – Analysis, Development and Implementation, Thomson Learning, 3rd Ed. Hollensen, S. (2004) Global Marketing, 3rd Ed, Prentice Hall, England Staples