Assessment Tool Analysis
Assessment Tool Analysis NUR/440 Assessment Tool Analysis Nursing has evolved throughout the years to become more than a job, it is a profession. Jean Watson developed her own theory in the late 1970s because she believes there was something missing from the profession. Jean Watson believes that nursing is a profession that allows the caregiver and the person cared for an opportunity to provide care on a basis that involves the mind, body, and spirit, which are the three parts of being. Watson’s carative factors allow the nurse and patient to relate on a more personal level.
These carative factors are used as a guide for providing nursing care. To name but a few, they are: Faith/Hope: “being authentically present, and enabling and sustaining the deep belief system and subjective life world of self and the one-being-cared-for” (Carative factors, 2003, p. 51). Expressing positive and negative feelings: “being present to, and supportive of, the expression of positive and negative feelings as a connection with deeper spirit of self and the one-being-cared-for” (Carative factors, 2003, p. 51).
Sensitivity to self and others: “cultivation of one’s own spiritual practices and transpersonal self, going beyond ego self, opening to others with sensitivity and compassion” (Carative factors, 2003, p. 51). Existential-Phenomenological-Spiritual forces: “opening and attending to spiritual-mysterious and existential dimensions of one’s own life-death; soul care for self and the one-being-cared-for” (Carative factors, 2003, p. 51). There are several tools that assist health care providers in the assessment process.
One tool is the Coping Resources Inventory for Stress (CRIS).
“CRIS is designed to measure a person’s coping resources, including personal behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, in addition to physical being” (Weinberg, 2012, para. 1). The CRIS scale has been valid when predicting illnesses, distress, and satisfaction. The inventory is made up of several hundred questions, which are broken down into several categories and can be time consuming. This scale can be used on any population but results are not easily attained without specific equipment.
This inventory can be taken by anyone who is at a seventh grade level or higher.
According to Weinberg (2012), the user cannot gain information or understand about scales’ item content as a basis for learning about the meaning of each scale score (Coping Resources Inventory for Stress, para. 10). This assessment tool would not be beneficial to a nurse in a hospital setting. The Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP) is also another assessment tool. It is a “multidimensional psychological self-report scale which serves as a screening and outcome measure of stress” (Shirley, 2012, para.
). The DSP is in the form of a questionnaire and is easily given. This tool can be used on any population and the validity of the test is questionable, but more research should be obtained. There is a manual for using this tool, but the reliability is not available. The DSP would be better used for study and research projects rather than an assessment guide for nurses.
The third tool is the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). “The PSS is not a diagnostic instrument, but it is proposed to make comparisons between individuals’ perceived stress related to current, objective events.
The higher the degree of PSS score indicates the higher risk factor for some disorders” (Al kalaldeh & Abu Shosha, 2012, p. 45). This test should be given to a population with a high school education at least. It also can be given to any population group.
This test can be taken in minutes and is easy to score and make a determination. This test appears to be valid and is not costly. This would be a helpful assessment tool for nurses in a hospital setting. These three tools can help determine stressors and their levels in the Hispanic population.
The PSS would be the more convenient choice for a quick glance at current stressors in patient’s daily living. The nurse would have instant scores, versus the DSP and CRIS, which take longer to take and receive scores.
The nurse would better be able to address patient concerns and modify the plan of care according to the patients needs. We as nurses do reflect on experiences as we interact with our patients daily. It is crucial to sympathize with the patient to give the patient what he or she needs, whether it be listening, educating, or just holding hands.
Subjective and objective data are very important in maintaining a nurse/patient relationship. Allowing the patient to hope and encourage them to reach out to others makes a difference in their state of wellbeing. Health care professionals have realized how important the unity of the body, mind, and spirit are to the healing process.
All three determine the sense of wellness that a patient feels when all are in harmony with each other. Watson believes that if we can connect with our patients on a personal level and be able to reflect on the patient’s feelings, then we are capable of providing care.
Nursing is much more than administering medications, making sure the patient has eaten and is clean and dry. Nurses have to provide a deeper side of their self to be successful in reaching all of the patient’s needs. As a nurse, I believe that by following Watson’s theory, this allows others to see what their strengths and weaknesses are, and how they can make necessary changes to become a caring healthcare provider. I have learned in my own career as a nurse that by not opening up and willing to care for the whole being, I am acting as a robot with no feeling.
I have seen how my patients open up and am more relaxed when they can sense genuine care from me. When I am conscious of how I am feeling and how I am responding to my patient, I can provide a more caring attitude. It is important to be aware of my surroundings and consider my patient’s feelings of his or her environment. Watson challenges the health care providers to examine their self. She encourages nurses to reflect on our own humanity and spirituality.
The transpersonal caring allows healthcare providers the ability to look into oneself and reflect upon.
The Caring moments allows the health care provider to be on the same level as the one being cared for. Encouraging one-self to look at every aspect of providing care can make nursing a rewarding profession. References: Al kalaldeh, M. T. , & Abu Shosha, G.
M. (2012, July). Application of The Perceived Stress Scale In Health Care Studies. International Journal of Acaemic Research, 4(4), Cara, C. (2003).
A Pragmatic View. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(3), 51. Retrieved from http://ehis. bscohost. com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer? vid=4&hid=3&sid=9d27d7da-2ca9-43f3-a9b9-b2942816f737%40sessionmgr4 Shirley, M.
C. (2012, Month Day). Derogatis Stress Profile. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from http://ehis. ebscohost.
com/eds/detail? sid=1cf3c146-2540-421a-9d73-9962c69118c1%40sessionmgr115&vid=34&hid=3&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU%3d Weinberg, S. L. (2012, Month Day). Coping Resources Inventory for Stress. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from