Bone Tissue Questions

Explain the relationship between Alicia and bones. 1 point) Calcium is essential for maintaining necessary level of bone mass to support structures of the body.

The body uses calcium for heart, blood, muscles and nerves. It can be lost through bodily process like sweating, waste, shedding of hair, skin and fingernails. The close relationship between bone and calcium is the principal processes of calcium metabolism. Bone contains about 99% of calcium in the body and can behave as an adequate buffer for maintenance of a constant level of freely moving calcium in soft tissues, extracurricular fluid and blood openness College, 2013). . Explain how the body controls calcium levels in the bones and blood.

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Be sure to describe the roles of parathyroid hormone (PATH) and collocation in detail. (2 points) Increased blood calcium levels stimulate the secretion of collocation from the thyroid and active steamboats to build bones thereby reducing blood calcium levels to within their normal range. Decreased blood calcium levels stimulate the parathyroid glands to release PATH which activate seacoasts which degrade bone and release calcium into the blood stream thereby raising blood Alicia levels. 4.

Explain specifically how osteoporosis affects the bone matrix and the normal bone remodeling cycle. (1 point) Osteoporosis results from an imbalance In which bone reapportion outstrips bone formation.

The net loss of bone matrix renders bones weaker and more susceptible to fracture with the fracture risk doubling for every ten percent bone loss (National Osteoporosis Foundation). 5. Discuss what scientists know about the genetics behind osteoporosis. (1 point) Genetic control of osteoporosis is polyclinic. Etiology of osteoporosis is multicultural n nature.

From family histories, twin studies and molecular genetics it is evident now that some of the predisposition of osteoporosis can be inherited. 6. List at least 5 controllable and 3 uncontrollable risk factors for this disease. (1 point) Uncontrollable risk factors for osteoporosis is gender/sex, family history or hereditary and age. When it comes to age older women are more likely to get osteoporosis and fractured bones. Controllable factors are not consuming enough calcium and Vitamin D in your regular diet, taking calcium without co-minerals.

Also high acid eating which means diets rich n animal protein add acid to the blood which can accelerate osteoporosis since it depletes bones of calcium, phosphorus and sodium. Excessive weight loss and dieting, not enough physical activity and smoking are all controllable factors to prevent osteoporosis (National Osteoporosis Foundation) . 7. What are the symptoms or telltale signs of osteoporosis? (1 point) In the early stages of osteoporosis there are typically no symptoms.

Once bones nave been weakened you can nave signs and symptoms that include but not limited to, back pain caused by fracture of collapsed rater, loss of height over time, stooped posture along with bone fractures occurring more often . Part II? “Jeremy” Questions 1.

What foods are good sources of calcium? (1 point) sources of calcium are cheese, yogurt, milk, sardines, leafy greens (spinach, kale, turnips, and collard greens), cereals (Total, Raisin Bran, Cornflakes), orange Juice, soy beans, soy milk (labeled good source of calcium), breads, grains and waffles. . Discuss the importance of Vitamin D to calcium absorption. (1 point) Taking in an adequate amount of calcium and Vitamin D are important to maintain bone density ND strength. But calcium and Vitamin D isn’t enough themselves other minerals and litanies are needed in the body as well. Vitamin D helps the absorption of calcium in the intestines.

Lack of vitamin D can cause systematical which further weakens the bones and increases risk of fractures. 3. Discuss calcium supplementation and the recommended daily dosages. 1 point) According to the Institute of Medicine, the recommended daily amount of calcium to get is: * 1-3 years: 700 milliards daily * 4-8 years: 1,000 milliards daily 9-18 years: 1,300 milliards daily 19-50 years: 1,000 milliards daily 1-70 years: 1,200 milliards daily for women; 1,000 milliards daily for men * 71 and older: 1,200 milliards daily 4. Discuss the effects of sodium, caffeine, and alcohol on calcium levels in the body. (1 point) Pay attention to foods that cause calcium loss through the urine.

You lose calcium daily through the urine.

While a certain amount is perfectly natural, there is evidence to suggest that calcium loss through the urine is increased by excess consumption of salt, caffeine and protein. Salt (Sodium) – in excess has been shown to increase the loss of calcium through the urine. Over 90% of sodium in our diets comes from manufactured food rather than from salt added to food at the table or during cooking. Caffeine – is contained in many beverages, including coffee, tea, cola and certain energy drinks. Recent studies show that caffeine increases calcium loss through the urine.

Most experts agree that two to three cups a day is probably not detrimental provided that calcium intake is adequate. If you consume more than three cups in a day, a good rule of thumb is to have at least one glass of milk for every cup of coffee (or to make some of those coffees cafe© lat©s or cappuccinos). Keep in mind that the less calcium in your diet, the more serious the effects of caffeine on this calcium loss. Excessive alcohol intake, such as seen in alcoholic, is associated with osteoporosis and fractures associated with osteoporosis. Alcohol is toxic to bone-forming cells and may interfere with bone metabolism. .

Explain what peak bone mass is and its relationship to osteoporosis. (1 point) Bone mass and strength achieved at the end of the growth period, simply designated as ‘Peak Bone Mass (IBM)”, plays an essential role in the risk of osteoporosis fractures occurring in adults DOD. It is considered that an increase to P M by one standard deviation would reduce the fracture risk by 50% 6. Describe the types of exercise that help prevent osteoporosis. Why? (1 point) One of the best ways to strengthen your bones and prevent osteoporosis is by getting regular exercise.

Even if you already have osteoporosis, exercising can help maintain the bone mass you have. When you exercise, you don’t Just build muscle and endurance. You also build and maintain the amount and thickness of your bones. You may hear health professionals call this ‘bone mass and density. ” Three types of exercise for osteoporosis are: Weight-bearing Resistance Flexibility 7.

What are steroids? What are some examples of steroid prescription medications? Neat are they used for? (1 point) Steroids (also known as cortisone or corticosteroids) are chemicals (hormones) that occur naturally in the body.