Jean Piaget

After World War I Pigged relocated to Paris and began working at a boys school, Cole De la rue De la Grange- xx-Belles here is where he began observing, interviewing, and listening to young children. This was the beginning of Jean Piglet’s lifelong passion to understand the growth of intelligence from infancy through adolescence. This gave him the ability to gain insight on the child and their cognitive psychology.

Piglet’s efforts found the discipline of genetic epistemology which is the biological foundations for knowledge.

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Pigged Theory of Cognitive Development states that children moved through four distinct stages in their development and the order of these stages were fixed: Seniority Stage, Operationally Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, and Formal Operational Operational Stage for this is Cantata’s current stage of life. Samaritan is 10 years old, of African American decent, and the third out of five children. She belongs to a very large extended family and is in middle childhood period.

Cantata’s cognitive development will be expressed through Jean Piglet’s four stages of development with some projections.

Seniority Stage rhea characteristics of the Seniority Stage can be divided n to six separate sub stages that are characterized by the development of a new skill. During the seniority stage Cantata’s knowledge of the world was limited to her sensory perceptions and motor activities. Her behaviors were limited to simple motor responses caused by sensory stimuli.

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Samaritan used the skills she was born Ninth like looking, sucking, grasping, and listening to learn her environment. She struggled to maintain control of her body parts. As a newborn she had simple reflexes that she gradually learned to control. Also, in this stage object permanence is resent. Samaritan was unable to understand t: hat objects continue to exist even En not seen for instance, if a rattle was hid from her view she quickly lost interest and did not look for the rattle. The development of object permanence was a great achievement for Samaritan.

This achievement awarded Samaritan the ability to form mental representation of rattle or toy and the Joy of searching for hidden rattle or Case Study Jean Pigged MEAN PIGGED A Discussion of Jean Piglet’s Cognitive Development in Understanding the Personality Development of Samaritan By Judith Hunt toy. Also, during this stage Samaritan began to understand the concept to object constancy where she knew it was the same rattle or toy regardless of distance, light, or a different angle. Sub-Stage 1: In this sub stage Samaritan understood the environment through her inborn reflexes such as sucking.

For example the sucking reflex caused her to suck at objects placed on her cheek and/or lips. Samaritan was nursed/breast feed from birth to seven months and introduced to bottles at the age of five months. At this time Samaritan began to adjust to sucking a nipple with different sizes outside of her mother’s breast.

According to Pigged this provided Samaritan with information about objects. This gave Samaritan the ability to scheme Inch means to organized a pattern of seniority functioning. According to Pigged there are two principles that underline the growth of children schemes: assimilation and accommodation.

Assimilation is the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking. Samaritan during this stage used to try to suck on toys, teddy’s, and blanket the same way. In contrast accommodation is changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events.

Samaritan experienced accommodation when she started to feed with spoons and drink from sip cups. This is also, when Samaritan combined schemas in order to achieve a desired effect. She began exploring the environment around her and she imitated the observed behaviors of others.

Samaritan while in this stage began a period of trial and error like tryout different sounds and/or actions as a way of getting attention. Samaritan towards the end of this stage around 20 months began to understand the world through mental operations rather than through her actions. Sub-Stage 2: Occurred from 1-4 months of life for Samaritan.

According to Pigged this is the beginning of first habits and primary circular reactions. Samaritan began to refine her reflexes and combine them into more complex actions like as an infant she would open and close her hand/flats and then put it in her mouth.

Sub-Stage 3: Occurred from 4-8 months of life for Samaritan. According to Pigged infants take major strides in shifting their cognitive horizons beyond themselves and began to act on the outside world. As for Samaritan this was true, according to her mother she became more aware of her environment, more responsive to the environment, and she began to notice her behavior changed the atmosphere. For example: Samaritan received great pleasure at picking up toys, spoons, teddy’s, and cups and then dropping them; each time they were returned to her, she would repeat the behavior and get upset for not having the object anymore.

Sub-Stage 4: Occurred from 8-12 months of life for Samaritan. This is the sub stage of Coordination of secondary circular reactions Inch means infants begin to use more calculated approaches to producing events, coordinating several schemes to generate a single act. According to Pigged this is En they achieve object permanence during this stage. Samaritan would reach out and grab for some toys like pull toys instead of crawling to get the toy. Samaritan also, recognized during this sub stage toys of hers existed whether she saw them or not.

She would often look for certain toys and one teddy in particular.

Sub-Stage 5: Occurred from 12-18 months of life for Samaritan which is known as the Tertiary circular reactions. At this age infants develop what Pigged regards as the deliberate lariat of actions that bring desirable consequences. Rather than Just repeat enjoyable activities, intents appear to carry out miniature experiments to observe the consequences. Samaritan continued some behaviors from sub stage 4 like dropping objects but she would change the position from which she dropped it. Sub-Stage 6: Occurred from 18-24 months of life for Samaritan which is known as the Beginnings of thought.

According to Pigged infants imagine where objects are that they cannot see and he strongly believes the development of symbolic thought and deferred imitation takes place. For instance Samaritan loved talking on her pink toy phone and driving her little tikes car. As Samaritan moved into more advance stages of cognitive development, she did not discard her seniority ways of interacting with the environment. She continued to use the behavioral and perceptual schemes she acquired as an infant. Operationally Thinking rhea Operationally stage for Samaritan was between the ages of two and six.

This is Inhere her language development increased rapidly and three characteristics developed egocentrics, conservation, and concentration. According to Pigged egocentrics is when children in this stage do not yet understand concrete logic, Anton mentally manipulate information, and are unable to take the point of view of other people. During this operationally stage Samaritan would role play often like acting as mommy, grandma, teacher, nurse, and doctor. She also, used symbols at times while playing/pretending. Conservation according to Pigged is “Learning That Appearances Are Deceiving.

Conservation is the knowledge that quantity is unrelated to the arrangement and physical appearance of objects. For example: En equal amounts of liquid are poured into two containers with that are different shape, despite seeing that the liquid amounts were equal, children almost always choose the cup that looks the fullest. Pigged conducted a number of similar experiments on numbers, length, mass, weight, volume, and quantity. Pigged found few children were able to understand the concept of conservation prior to the age of five.

Samaritan has always excelled academically therefore, her mother explained she did very well in this area of math and science, even at a young age. Concentration according to Pigged “What You See Is What You Think”.

Concentration is the process of incinerating on one limited aspect of a stimulus and ignoring other aspects. For example: children take a visual look at what appears longer or bigger and make their decisions from that. Their decisions are not made according facts. Concrete Operational Thinking Samaritan is currently in this stage – concrete operational thinking which is during the middle childhood period from 7 – 12 years.

The concrete operational stage is the period of cognitive development that is characterized by the active and appropriate use of logic. Samaritan is displaying a better understanding of mental operations.

For instance, instead of take a guess at a conservation problem she now uses her intellectual ability and logic to solve a problem. Pigged strongly believes that children in the concrete operational stage are fairly good at the use of inductive logic. Reversibility is another characteristic of concrete operations. This is one of the most important developments in this stage.

Samaritan uses this on a regular basis.

She has an understanding and awareness that actions can be reversed for example: Samaritan can distinguish between her grandmother’s birds, one is a canary, another is a parrot, and the other a macaw. During this stage Cantata’s understanding is increasing through concepts to time, speed, distance, and comprehending. She oaten calculates travel time for the family when going to visit sisters away in college Nether we are driving, flying or returning them home on a train. Samaritan is Morning above grade level in her current math class which is honors algebra class.

She has also been given the task at school as Peer Leader in her P.

E. /Health class. “hen writing and engaging in conversation Cantata’s vocabulary continues to increase and she recently tested at the 10th grade reading level with a 92% recently on her Reading Performance Exam. Cantata’s cognitive development is above average in her age group due to the stimuli she received throughout her cognitive development stages. Formal Operational Period It is during this stage of Formal Operational Period between the ages of 12 through adulthood that Samaritan will become capable of deductive logic.

Formal operational stage is the stage at which people develop the ability to think abstractly.

According to Pigged the formal principles of logic for adolescents they are able to consider problems in abstract rather than only concrete. Adolescents in the formal operational stage use hypothetic deductive reasoning in which they start with a general theory about what produces a particular outcome and then deduce explanations for specific situations which they see the outcome. During this stage the adolescent will encounter the adolescent egocentrics in which they think others are always thinking about them.

Samaritan has heard older siblings and her parents discuss this and she calls her sisters paranoid. The kind of egocentrics we see in adolescence in adolescence is imaginary audience.

Imaginary audience is fictitious observers who ay as much attention to adolescents’ behavior as they do themselves. The perfect example of the imaginary audience is when the adolescent believes everyone at church, home, store, and school is looking at the pimple on their face, a cold sore on the mouth, and/or a stain on their shirt.

This form of egocentrics leads to a second distortion in thinking personal fables. Personal fables is the view held by some adolescents that what happens to them is unique, exceptional, and shared by no one else. Another great example is when the adolescent is having problems in a relationship with a boyfriend or best friend they feel as if no one has ever experienced what they are going through before, and no one understands. When I began to explain the issue that Samaritan may encounter in this stage she replied not so favorable.

Conclusion In conclusion the 4 stages of Cognitive Development and 6 sub stages are provide great insight into the cognitive development of infants through adulthood. Roughest these stages Pigged said that three principal processes are at work assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration. According to Pigged it is the dual processes of assimilation and accommodation that allow the child to form scheme. It IS this process of equilibration which explains why some children are faster in achieving logical intelligence than others.

Jean Piglet’s theory has been applauded and criticized.

Nevertheless, Piglet’s theory NAS and a major impact in psychology, in sociology, and in education. Although, Pigged did not specifically apply his theory to education, many educational programs are built upon the belief that children should be taught at the level they are developmentally prepared. Pigged is credited with founding the disciplines of Child Cognitive Development and Genetic Epistemology.