Case Study Qualitative
Nothing is accomplished by blaming the difficulty on low level intelligence, lack of interest, laziness, or at home. Moreover, the goal of reading is to extract meaning from text, and this depends upon both decoding and language- impression skills.
Recently there has been growing interest in children who can read accurately but have poor comprehension. Reading-comprehension difficulty is relatively common, though it often goes unrecognized in the classroom.
In fact, comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading and thus, it is a serious problem that requires special attention. Issues about reading and poor comprehension have been universal. In the International scene, results from the Global Campaign for education revealed that 774000000 adults worldwide (age 15 and above) cannot read. In America, over 8 lions students in grades 4-12 who do not read at grade level, need a Comprehensive Approach to instruction to improve achievement.
Reading deficiency is one of the most significant problems educators are facing today.
The reading problem is creating an epidemic which leads to so many drops outs and the increased numbers of cases are distributing in educational setting. Furthermore in the United States, progress is being made relative to improve reading skills, but many students are still failing to achieve adequate proficiency in reading. In the 2009 Nation’s report Card, only 33% of fourth- grade and 32 % of eight- grade are reading t a proficiency level or above Majority of the students lack the needed skill for achieving meaningful from grade level- text.
The problem increases and causes another problem in subject areas.
Reading problems are also likely to have a say on students overall poor academic performance. In the Philippines, one of the existing problems of the Department of Education is the low level of reading comprehension of students. Soon (2004) as cited by Albino (2007) confirms that the High School Readiness Test conducted last 2004 yielded a result of only 0. 6 percent of about 1. 2 million first year high school students who stirred a passing rate of 75 percent.
Based on the studies of Deep-Deed, one of the reasons winy many students were not yet ready to go to cocoons Is Decease AT tenet reading problems.
It was also in the same year that Metro Manila got the highest literacy rate of 99% in census conducted. But the Phil- IR results in the City School Division of Manila among the 26, 843 pupils enrolled in Grade 3, 47. 59% and 32. 47% fall under frustration and instructional readers respectively and only 19. 94% are independent reader.
By the end of the cycle, (Grade 6), with 27199 pupils, over one hired of elementary graduates were identified as “frustration readers” with 36.
50% another one- third (34. 67%) were “instructional readers”. Both levels are below the desired reading level at the end of elementary cycle. In Metro Manila shows a higher literacy level than the rest of the country but low levels of reading competence one can only expect even low reading scores in other regions of the country with less quality, funds and educational facilities than the National Capital Region (Lug, 2007).
In the local scene, the student develops difficulty in reading, and needs intervention in a particular area or areas. In this case, the researcher will be working with a student who is diagnosed under instructional level in word recognition and under frustration level in reading comprehension.
Lieu, a grade 2 student of Amelia Elementary School, loves to play outside that’s why he had a little time in practicing his reading skills. Moreover, he has a difficult time comprehending stories or texts. This really affects his reading comprehension as well as other subjects.
The researcher has observed that he is able to read sight words but appears to need more instruction and elaboration in the meaning of some words. After talking with the parents, the researcher found out that the student really struggles in reading. This study would like to prove that repeated reading will be the best and suited strategy for a developing reader struggling with reading difficulties.
The goal of this study is to demonstrate that reading comprehension, word recognition as well as fluency will improve with consistent use of repeating readings.
A combination of methods, rather than a single method, leads to the best learning. As with this study, it is possible that repeated reading will contribute to the improvement in students eating levels in silent and oral, as well as its reading interest. Several stakeholders will benefit from this study. Firstly, the learner will be more academically and globally competitive, will gain self confidence and increase his reading level. Second, the parents will have less in tutorial time and will be more challenged to support the continual process of the learners reading development.
Thirdly, reading teachers will be more encouraged gaining more knowledge in seeking possible strategies and will perhaps used repeated reading and it’s in line activities to help their struggling readers and achieve the highest goal of reading, impression. Lastly, this study will encourage school administrators to strengthen and sustaining the implementation and monitoring as to help students achieve higher mark or no during NAT and also in other standardized test. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE I Nils Stetson presents present study. En literature Ana studies relate EAI to Ana support clarity AT t Reading requires the interaction between readers and the author, it’s an active meaning- getting activity, a process which in the readers brings to the task and then tests his prior knowledge, interest, aptitudes, strategies and all other sources of information to construct meaning of the printed page (Load, 1989). There are five big ideas in reading namely, Phonemic Awareness, Alphabetic Principle, and Fluency with Text, Vocabulary and Comprehension.
Reading is said to be one of the most important and complex cognitive skill and such importance has resulted into extensive studies over years (Biddable, Login, & Minim-Smith, 1985).
Raisin’s (2000) viewed reading as a multifaceted process, “If students do not develop fluent reading in the early grades, it can impact their reading speed, accuracy, comprehension and enjoyment of printed text. These students are reluctant to read aloud or read to others as their reading is slow and tedious to listen to.
When students are unable to read fluently, it can result in poor comprehension, an essential component of reading success (Raisin’s, 2000, p. 92). Lack of comprehension of written text will continue to be a stumbling block for a student’s continued understanding of fiction and non-fiction text in the classroom.
This lack of fluent reading can impact a student’s understanding of text in all subject areas. These non-fluent readers may struggle comprehending science, social studies and math texts.
Lastly, this continued lack of fluency has the potential to discourage student’s reading for continued education and learning as well as lack of reading for enjoyment as they grow into adulthood. Reading is an active meaning- getting activity which requires the interaction between readers and the author. It is a process which in the readers brings to the task and then tests his prior knowledge, interest, aptitudes, strategies and all other sources of information to construct meaning of the printed page (Load, 1989).
Reading; is defined as meaning construction process that utilizes ROR knowledge, depends on an efficient communication between writer and reader which is executed in a suitable environment with an appropriate method and purpose (Kola, 2006). The fundamental reason of reading is to make sense of text, to learn and to engage in the ideas that are articulated.
If we accept this as truth, then we must accept the fact that fluent reading is the critical building block that prepares the reader for this capability. Once students understand and master the ability to decode words, it is vital for them to integrate control of their reading fluency so they are able to focus on making meaning of the text. Students lacking fluency are concerned with decoding and word recognition and are less likely to be able to construct meaning from what they are reading.
Poor readers tend to spend less time on reading than fluent readers. They may avoid reading which may lead to the loss of skills and cause them to lag further behind other students at their grade level. Hunch Is ten gateway to unreasonable. Furthermore, Repeated reading, initially known as multiple oral reading, involves multiple, successive encounters with the same visual material, the key being repetition-whether of the same words, sentences, or connected discourse.
An instructional technique designed originally for improving reading fluency in learners with reading disabilities, repeated reading has been practiced with both disabled and non-disabled students in a variety of fashions, ranging from having the learner read aloud (Samuels, 1979), to listening to and simultaneously or subsequently reading aloud (Chomsky, 1978), and to silently reading (Anderson, 1993, 1999, 2008, 2009), the same material multiple times.
Despite the procedural divergence, research has shown that the technique benefits fluency development-defined as improved accuracy of word recognition and reading speed-and comprehension in slow adders. Chomsky (1978), for example, reported that the procedure increased the fluency of slow and halting readers and instilled in them a heightened sense of confidence, motivation, and willingness to undertake reading new material independently. According to the study of A.
R Round (2009), repeated reading method has been practiced in the United States since, at least, the 19th century and it has been used in the Orient for centuries. In fact, in many cultures the primary way children learn reading is by practicing a specific text numerous times until they can read it fluently.
However, despite repeated readings’ widespread use in the past, today’s primary and secondary education classrooms are experiencing significant transformations.
Finally, the positive influence of repeated reading on fluency has been found to foster other benefits for students. For example, Blue and Kookiness found that repeated reading not only helps to improve reading fluency and comprehension, but that it also helps students become more confident in their reading and more motivated to read. In this regard repeated reading influences a student’s reading- oriented self-esteem as well. Theoretical Framework At the heart of repeated reading is repetition (Bienville, 1978; Perfect & Roth, 1981).
A concept from information processing theory, repetition or redundancy may lead to an increase in familiarity and corresponding decrease in the amount of information to be processed while reading (Why¶n & Minnie, 1990).
The repeated reading method is based on the theory of automatic information processing. This theory explains how individuals read and decode text. As Labeler and Samuels explain, in the automatic process fluent readers are able to decode text smoothly and effortlessly (I. E. Automatically). However, non-fluent readers lack he ability to decode text rapidly.
As a result, non-fluent readers have difficulties in both reading speed and comprehension. This difficulty arises because such readers must focus their attention on decoding the words. The result is that meaning is lost. Moreover, Samuels contends Tanat students won are addle to comprehend want teeny read, but who are still non-fluent readers, have the necessary word attack skills but need additional practice reading in order to be proficient in both comprehension and fluency. The repeated reading method, with its iterative cycles of readings, provides the required practice for struggling, non-fluent readers.