China Case Study
China is currently in the early stages of stage 4 of the Demographic transition model due to its crude death rate being slightly higher than its crude birth ate. China may also be considered to be a rapidly ageing population represented by their population pyramid. In the future there may be shortage of young people as seen by the shrinking base of their population pyramid. By 2050 people aged 60 and over could rise from around 13. 3% In 2011 to almost 20% of the total population.
The population structure is skewed towards more males than females in the younger age groups.
After the implementation of the One-child Policy sex-selection abortion became more common until officially banned in the late sass’s. This practice partly explains why China’s at-birth sex ratio is unusually high: 118 males to 100 girls which has risen from 2000 where It stood at 116. 8 males to 100 girls according to both the 2011 and 2000 census. Population Characteristics: Decline in death/mortality rates: Positive – The control of diseases and other causes of deaths and Improvements In living conditions have Improved and this means life expectancy has Increased.
This Is a benefit as people have longer and healthier lives.
Life expectancy has increase from 51. 29 1965 and 73. 27 2010. Negative – Life expectancy is increasing and this means the population is becoming ore aged. This is a problem as China has no pension/social security system for the aged. This puts pressure on children to look after their parents.
Decline in birth and fertility rates: Positive – This is a benefit as it means the population is not growing as quickly and there Is less pressure of population on limited resources.
Negative – A problem Is Tanat ten population Is ageing Tort tenure are Tower younger people and older people as life expectancy increases. Slowing rate of population increase: Positive – This has slowed dramatically since the introduction of the One-Child Policy in 1979. The benefit is that Chinese total population is much lower than it would have been without the policy. Another benefit is that there are less people competing for resources so living conditions are higher than they would have been without the One Child Policy.
Consequences or Problems Faced: When the Chinese Communist Party (CM) took power in 1949 they saw a large population as an asset and good for political and economical strength.
CM policies had a great affect on China’s birth rate in the early years of power, which encouraged couples to have large families in order to, achieve a larger China. At the same time improvements in public-health access, cleaner water and better food supplies led to a rapidly decreasing death rate.
Rapid population growth followed with the population increasing from 547 million in 1949 to 830 million by 1970. As a result of this population explosion widespread food shortages developed and the death rate increased as the birth rate decreased resulting in a temporary population decline. Additionally during this time period there was a large movement of people away from rural areas to urbanites areas to capitalist on the economic boom occurring during the time period resulting in a lack of agricultural reduction.
Impacts on the population: – Closer living quarters, smaller amounts of land due to dense populations in urbanites environments.
(Negative) – Due to sex selection in the past many young males will be unable to start families. (Negative) – The One-Child Policy has created little empire syndrome where he or she is spoilt. (Negative) – Due to modernization in the last couple of decades farming techniques have improved resulting in more efficient agriculture production resulting in a greater supply of food. (Positive) Impacts on the environment: – Loss of rural land from city development.
Negative) – Loss of fertile soil from over cultivation to supply food. (Negative) – Due to impersonations In ten last couple AT access Tarring techniques improved resulting in better use of land resources.
(Positive) Factors that contributed to population: nave Social: Agriculture was prominent in China before industrialization. As a result farming family wanted more children in their family as they were seen as an economical asset providing a helping hand in the field as well as offering care to the elderly.
History: When the Chinese Communist Party (CM) took power in 1949 they saw a large population as an asset and good for political and economical strength. CM policies had a great affect on China’s birth rate in the early years of power, which encouraged couples to have large families in order to, achieve a larger China. At the same time improvements in public-health access, cleaner water and better food supplies led to a rapidly decreasing death rate.
Rapid population growth followed with the population increasing from 547 million in 1949 to 830 million by 1970.
As a result of this population explosion widespread food shortages developed and the death rate increased as the birth rate decreased resulting in a temporary population decline. Economic: The economic successes of the One-Child Policy – better education leading to more highly paid Jobs, less mouths to feed and a more economically developed society means that the birth rate of China decreases as people choose to put their careers before the prospect of children. The gender imbalance may also have an economic factor. Many Chinese believe that a son can bring more money to the family than a daughter can.
Environment: The different environments of rural and urban China have significant effects on its population dynamics over time. For example, rural regions, due to their relative remoteness mean that more people choose to live in urban centers. The highly dense, urban environments mean that some people choose not to have children as they do not want to bring them in that environment, or the career, money fuelled human environment has driven them to priorities children lower down the Physical: The physical environment of china contributed to its population density and distribution.
As only roughly 13% of China is arable land, the population cannot grow arguer than the country’s carrying capacity with regards to availability of food, so physical factors such as the cold desert in the north, this has a very significant impact on population distribution, as people will live where the conditions are most hostile. Political: Chinese Communist Party.
The Chinese Revolution. Mao government’s pantaloons was : ‘l nee more essence, ten stronger ten Nation encouraged to have many children. Nielsen women were Technological: As Chinese cities have become more economically developed, they have also become increasingly modernized, and this has happened in China to a large extent. The vast and rapid technological development of cities such as Beijing has resulted in a population increase there and internal migration from the country to the city. Technological developments such as ultrasound and other health developments have meant that people are living longer and have a direct correlation to the gender imbalance issue in China today.
Policies Used to combat problems (Responses): The One-Child Policy was announced in 1979 and aimed to limit China’s population to 1. 2 billion by 2000 by setting a one child limit for both rural and urban areas and a maximum of two children in special circumstances. Couples with only one child were given a “one-child certificate” entitling them to such benefits as cash bonuses, longer maternity leave, better child care, and preferential housing assignments. As well as this propaganda was employed through billboards with slogans such as “Have fewer children live better lives” and even “One more baby means one more tomb”.
In the early years of the policy people were beaten up and killed for disobeying the policy as well as other disincentives such as hefty fines, demotions and lack of access to education.
Evaluation of the Policy: The has been very effective response in that there was a ere rapid decline in the population growth rate with the fertility rate dropping from 5. 8 in 1979 to 1 . In 2000. However, the policy has not been a total success as it had to be modified to allow for two children in rural areas if the first child was a daughter or was physically disabled.
If the policy had been kept to one child, China’s population in 2010 would be 1.
04 billion but will now be around 1. 1 billion but will now be around 1. 1 billion in 2010. There is now a gender imbalance because many baby girls were aborted or killed after birth as parents wanted the chance to try and have a son. For every 100 men there are 113 females. Over time, there will be a population structure imbalance with too few young people and too many old people that is an aged population.
The support ration of people working to people retired will be unbalanced.