Country Networks

We have identified and contacted institutions and organizations that will commit to creating an action plan for the Decade Campaign.

We have Informed the headquarters for religious organizations in the country, so that they may contact all churches and mosques to participate in the campaign. The Christian (Catholic and Protestant) Institutions have youth economic programs. They are committed to emphasizing the agenda of youth employment, by encouraging parents to contribute to start-up capital for the youth. They are also using their sermons as a medium to encourage young people to form economic groups rather than gangs.

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According to Muslim leaders there are no formal economic projects organized through the mosques at present.

However, they plan to start some Joint ventures with Christian leaders to create employment programs for youth. They have also agreed to disseminate information within the Muslim community to encourage parents and youth to get involved In the campaign. This will ensure that information is disseminated to the rural and urban areas. We have contacted various educational and higher learning Institutions so that they can make arrangements to explicitly incorporate the goals of the Summit into their ark.

In addition, the Media Sub-committee which was formed as a sub-committee to the to the YES Country Network Coordinating Committee, has taken on the responsibility of disseminating Information and promoting YES during the Decade Campaign. They are also responsible for organizing media events as well as lobbying issues related to the YES Campaign.

We have contacted many Nags about participating in the YES Campaign. These Nags will remain in contact with the Country Network Coordinating Committee tongue ten various centers Tort YES, wanly nave Eden start YES Structure in Tanzania

In order to make sure that the YES Campaign reaches the primary target group, we plan to form a structure that will function within the geographical conditions of the country. We will begin with a National Committee; from the national we will form committees for each zone. These zonal units will be responsible for organizing and promoting economic activities within the particular regions that are appropriate for the geographical, social and economic conditions. For example the Lake Zone is made up of four regions that surround Lake Victoria.

The Lake Zone Centre will endorse activities such as fishing, agriculture, livestock and mining within the four regions.

From the regions we will form partnerships at the district – ward – village level in order to insure that the Campaign reaches the grassroots level. Currently there is a YES Country Network Coordinating Committee at the national level. The YES Country Network is not an independent institution but acts as a program being run by various Institutions with the Tanzania Media and Youth Development Association (TAMED) acting as the Main centre in partnership with the Ministry of Labor, Youth Development and Sports.

There are also five YES centers that represent different zones. Like the main Country Network, they also operate through other organizations. The first centre was formed in Zanzibar through Partnership for Youth Development (PAD) and the Zanzibar Youth, Education and Environment Development Support Association (SADNESS).

The Lake Zone Centre was formed through the Youth Advisory and Development Council (YAWED). The Costal Zone was formed through the AH organization. The Northern Highland Zone was formed through Mambo Youth Development in Maybe. The Southern Zone was formed by TAMED South Zone based in Arvada.

We are currently planning to form other centers in order to reach the whole nation. YES Campaign at The National Level We recognize that to implement YES campaign at the national level we need to prepare adequately and to form close partnerships with diverse stakeholders, especially government and inter-governmental institutions.

Various non-government organizations must also begin to work together more closely in order to build the capacity of civil society to meet the needs of the most marginalia people within the society. For example: In order to reach youth at the grassroots level we should work closely with the

The informal sector absorbs the bulk of the labor force but it is stretched to the limit. Informal sector employment is growing at 2. 4 per cent annually which is below the growth of the labor force (3 per cent). Youth are an important resource; they have a very important role to play in socio- economic development of the nation.

Apart from being bigger in number youth are energetic, courageous and often have new ideas that can make a vital contribution to the socio-economic development if they are well organized and involved in development issues in various sectors.

However, despite of being the largest group of he national population (33%) consisting the largest labor force, (68%) young people throughout the country face critical problems which do not only make them unable to participate fully in the development of the country but have resulted into other problems. The youth have a greater potential to learn new techniques and are more flexible in adapting to changing conditions. The problem of unemployment of graduates from institutions of higher learning has grown to levels that are raising concern.

Major factors contributing to youth unemployment problems as indicated in two studies (OIL/UNDO 1991 and Magma, 1997) are provided as follows: The general decline in the economy: The general decline of the economy especially at the end of the 1970, raised doubts over the ability of the country’s economy to create employment opportunities for an estimated number of over 700,000 people who enter the labor market each year. Reduction of civil servants and prevarication of partially organizations as a move to restructure the economy has fallen most heavily and negatively on the youths.

This is so because the exercise involves retrenching employees were given priority to minimize costs. Decline of employment opportunities for youth as a result of the growth of private sectors interest in employing experienced employees leaving inexperienced youth. The Education System: The number of primary school leavers is big and has not been followed by a corresponding expansion of the secondary education. Very few have been absorbed in secondary school (about 10 per cent).

Lack of Skills and Business Training: At ten time youths complete tenet primary or secondary coeducation teeny ah not nave adequate skills that they can use to start self-employment activities. There are few secondary schools that have business and commercial courses for students but the nakedness is however that they emphasis on theoretical courses.

Inadequate Credit Facilities: Many youths have started self-employment opportunities but lack start up capital. Financial institutions usually have stringent conditions, which are almost impossible to be met by youths.

Emphasis on the Formal Sector Alone: The formal sector has not been able to absorb the majority of the unemployed youths. Various studies (Bacchus, 1991, Laving, 1994) have shown the potential of the informal sector in creating employment opportunities for youths. Non-attractive agricultural sector and the rural areas in general: The rural areas and he agriculture sector in particular are currently not attractive to youths.

The hand- operated hole has remained the main farm implement for working the soil and has, for a long time now, rendered agriculture a difficult task.

Poor farm implements and other and farm inputs, lack of technology in food processing and preservation, lack of good and reliable market for the farm products as well as poor infrastructure cause the youth to loose interest, although it is considered a major employer. There is lack of adequate social and economic facilities in rural areas as compared to those in urban centers. Youth population growth rate: The youth population growth rate has remained high (over 3 per cent since 1988).

Thus, it is true that there are more unemployed youths today than there was ten years ago.

Influence of culture: Gender bias in Job allocation has influenced Job allocation for female youths. This attitude is however slowly changing and women are increasingly becoming active in the labor force. The problem of unemployment is relatively more acute for women and the youth-as reflected in stereotypical occupations that demand minimum qualifications and usually go with low pay. Some inhibiting culture and social factors reinforce gender imbalances in education.

Lack of Information Labor market information is inadequate in coverage, outdated, gender insensitive and lacks standards for statistics. It is only now that the government is working on establishing one official source for Labor Market Information and Statistics.

The YES country Network wall take part In making youth concerning employment. Aware AT now to access International Impact of youth unemployment (I. E. , socially, politically, economically, and environmentally) One of the many aspects that resulted in the formation of the Youth Development

Department was the need to address the increasing problems afflicting the youth in the country. Many of the problems youth are experiencing can be linked to the poverty that they face as a result of unemployment.

Many unemployed youth are engaging in criminal and dangerous behaviors in order to financially support themselves and/or to cope with the difficulties of living in poverty. Increasing drug trafficking and abuse rates High HIVE/AIDS/SST prevalence among the youth Unplanned and Early pregnancies, abortions etc Prostitution etc.

Drug and Substance abuse The scope of the drug problem has not spared the African region and Tanzania in reticular. The scourge has progressively spread throughout the country especially in the urban areas threatening all segments of the society, especially young people. The most disturbing and alarming feature is that the proportion of drug dependent youth is increasing and becoming a growing concern as more and more youth get involved in the abuse and trading of these illicit drugs.

The problem of illicit drug abuse and trafficking complements that of HIDES infection in that an addict has poor or no control or good Judgment as regards to sexual relations.

High prevalence of HIDES and Studs HIDES pandemic in Tanzania has grown rapidly and widely especially in urban areas during the past two decades. This pandemic has become the leading cause of death to many Tanzania. Studies show that females seem to be more affected than males in age groups below 30 years, while males are more affected over 30 years. Youth aged between 1 5 – 24 years contributed to 15% of the total cases.

Unplanned and Early pregnancies, abortions The promiscuous behavior of having unprotected sex, that leads to high rates of HIVE/AIDS among unemployed youth, also leads to high rates of unplanned and early pregnancies and abortions. The expense involved in caring for a child leads to Turner Impoverishment AT young people particularly young women won oaten care the burden of single motherhood.

Prostitution The desperate need for unemployed youth to earn a living often pushes them into such activities as prostitution, theft and drug trafficking.

These actions can be directly linked to various other social problems, namely the rapid spread of HOW AIDS. OBJECTIVE OF CREATING YOUTH EMPLOYMENT PROJECT Increasing opportunities for youth to gain employment in meaningful positions that provide a livable income, would reduce the number of young people engaging in ungenerous and immoral practices in order to earn a living. THE ROOT CAUSES OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT Inadequate Education Many of the youth who enter the education system don’t get chances to continue with their education mainly due to limited vacancies and resources.

As they go up the educational hierarchy, many are dropped or do not get Jobs or employment even if they have completed institutions of higher learning. Those who are completing secondary education and trained in various technical skills are also starting to get problems in securing employment in the formal sector.

This wows that there is a gap in relating what they have learnt and where to practice due to the fact that they lack capital, entrepreneurship skills, proper environment or places for business, lack of experience and direction.

Lack of Good Upbringing It is important for the parents to recognize all changes, which occur in their children, and be able to give the required guidance during their transition period. Contrary to this, many youth don’t get necessary guidance and end up doing whatever they think is right. In many cases this leads to devious behaviors. Uncoordinated Efforts Various organization within various sectors are working to develop and implement projects aimed at creating employment for youth.

Due to the lack of information sharing many are not informed about the work being done by other establishments and as a result are missing out on opportunities to collaborate in order to achieve shared goals.

Inadequate Infrastructure Inadequate infrastructure in rural areas encourages youth to migrate to urban areas intensifying the problem of unemployment in urban centers while leaving many potential opportunities for growth in rural areas untapped. Adequate infrastructure or the promotion of employment in the informal sector is also lacking.

Globalization The transition to the free market system has resulted in the prevarication of many establishments. This shift has resulted in the loss of many Jobs. Since the capacity to make profit depends on low operational costs, employers often hire the minimum number of workers to maximize their profit.

ten roles Tanat snout a De Tutelage Day S taskmasters Stakeholders need to develop partnerships with each other in order to maximize their potential to take the actions necessary to create all possible opportunities for the economic development of youth. Rent stakeholders/PARTNERS Current stakeholders in the development of youth include: The Ministry of Labor Youth Development and Sports-Tanzania Mainland The Ministry of Youth, Employment, Children and Women Development in Tanzania Zanzibar The Ministry of Commerce and Industries The Ministry of Education and Culture The Ministry of Finance The Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism The Media Non-government Organizations, particularly those that deal with youth.

Financial Institutions Educational Institutions Private Companies Religious Institutions The Family Village Governments Youth stakeholders roles, strengths and opportunities growth The Ministry of Labor Youth Development and Sports: This ministry is directly responsible for issues concerning youth development and therefore has the role of coordinating and monitoring all youth employment activities in the country. The strength of this ministry is their strong ties to the MONGO sector, which creates opportunities for them to plan programs, together with Nags, that can have an impact at the grassroots level.

The Ministry of Commerce and Industries The role of this ministry is to work together with the MONGO and private sectors to plan aerogramme that can assist youth in formulating and developing business and production projects.

The role of this ministry is to constantly review and when necessary amend the school curricular to accommodate the needs of youth as they change over time. They should also promote technology and science subjects with emphasis on giving young people practical skills.

I en Manliest AT Hence Recognizing the importance of youth in social and economic development this ministry should allocate adequate funds for youth programmers. It is also essential for other financial institutions to develop a system of giving out loans for youth to establish and manage economic projects. The role of this ministry should be to involve youth in the agricultural sector by providing training programmers for youth using appropriate technology as to increase productivity.

The strength of this ministry is in its potential to reduce the rural to urban migration trend that further exacerbates the effects of poverty by creating opportunities that can encourage rural youth not to leave in search of employment.

The role of this ministry is to develop training strategies and programmers that can involve youth in programs dealing with natural resources and tourism. The strength f this ministry is its capacity to employ youth in environmental activities that can lead to healthy management of natural resources.

The media plays a very important role in using disseminating information that can educate people and make them aware of existing youth employment related programmers. The strength of the media is in its ability to reach the masses of people, including those in remote areas. The media should begin to make partnerships with Nags and various other sectors of society to promote activities related to youth development.

Non-government Organizations, particularly those that deal with youth. This sector sibyl has the largest role to play in increasing employment opportunities among the youth.

They should prepare and implement programmers related to the mission and objectives of the youth development policy and Vision 2025. The strength of the MONGO sector is in its ability to target communities at the grassroots level. They can increase their scope of influence by making partnerships with international organizations, governments, the private sector and media. The role of this sector is to reinforce positive morals within the youth, including the importance of hard work and self-improvement and to establish economic projects or youth.

The strength of religious institutions is in their ability to have a positive influence on the youth and their families in order to encourage them to work toward economic advancement. I en role AT ten private sector Is to create opportunities Tort youth employment wherever possible. It is also essential for private companies to work together with the MONGO sector as donors and/or programmer development partners to create opportunities for youth to have access to training and skills that can increase their chances of gaining employment.

The strength of this sector is in skills and knowledge that they have that can assist youth in gaining employment. They can utilize this strength by making partnerships with Nags to create Joint ventures that can lead to Job creation.

International/Donor Agencies Like the private sector, international agencies are in a position to provide the capital necessary to implement youth employment programmers at the community level. They need to use this strength to support the work of Nags and community organizations. The role of village governments should be to assist youth in establishing self- employment projects.

The strength of the government at the local level is in their attention to provide opportunities for youth to be employed by utilizing the available resources. It is necessary for them to encourage and enhance the skills of the youth whenever possible.

Youth must play the role of being active participants in their own development. It is important for youth to seek knowledge regarding their rights and to seize opportunities to use their skills and talents to develop themselves economically and thus recognize that they are responsible for contributing to the development of their nation.

The strength of young people is in their ability to adapt and learn quickly; in heir energy and ability to conceive new and innovative ideas. By becoming active and informed about their rights they can increase their own opportunities for development. LOCATION: The project will be done in both Tanzania Mainland and Tanzania Zanzibar (in the 129 districts of Tanzania.

We prefer to use Districts because it will be easy to reach grassroots level and to evaluate the programs.