What is the need for educational planning? – Educational planning is important to know because it serve as guides to the planner for elaborating national objectives. It does not mean that he is bound to accept one or the other as basis for his work. He need not accept any of them. What is essential is that the planner should know the scope and limitation of each approach. * As planner/administrator, how do you understand the term “educational development “?
Suggest other facets of educational development. – Educational development – is an active learning process, founded on values of solidarity, equality, inclusion and co-operation. It enables people to move from basic awareness of international development priorities and sustainable human development, through understanding of the causes and effects of global issues to personal involvement and informed actions. * What may bring about a feasible and workable educational development plan in your region/division/district/institution? An educational development plan claims to be designed to meet the unique educational needs of the learner. In all cases the educational development plan must be tailored to the individual student’s needs by the evaluation process, and must especially help teachers and related service providers understand the student’s learning process. * What do you think is the ideal approach to be used as basis of planning activity in your area? Why? – The socio-cultural approach is ideal because it is important to retain a broad perception of literacy instruction as it is currently practiced in our society.
Historically, the goal of providing mass literacy at a sophisticated level is a comparatively recent one (Graff 1978). It has only been in some countries since the early part of this century that education systems have seriously taken upon themselves the task of providing literacy instruction, beyond the levels required by civil participation, to the entire populace. The recency of these efforts means that our theories about literacy are both comparatively piecemeal and usually in hot competition with one another.
We are only beginning to understand the important ways in which literacy is an emergent technology I that is, a technology that changes the environment in which it is used. . LESSON 2 FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL PLANNING * Why is there a need for an educational planner to have a basic knowledge and understanding of his society? – Because it will help him to advance the education of humankind through the application of knowledge, resources and creative abilities in order to encourage, support, guide and advance educational research and evaluation cooperatively with educational planning. What are the principal cost elements of education? – The three principal cost elements of education are the investment in capital (school building, site, etc. ), current costs (teacher’s salaries, books, chalk, etc. ) and indirect cost ( when people are in school they do not participate in production, what they would have earned had they worked is the indirect cost. ) *
Why should an educational planner know the educational system? – Educational planners everywhere face a series of ajor problems in the coming decade while one central problem is to continue the trend of quantitative expansion which has been marked in the past decade, this is by no means the only problem. The most important and difficult problems lie in the realm of changing educational systems, to fit them more realistically and productively to the changing needs of societies and individuals, and to raise their efficiency and productivity so that they can contribute the most to national development within the limited resources available. How should educational planners respond to the challenges of population dynamics? – Educational planners will have to explore new avenues, including major reforms of educational structure and contents. The response of education to population dynamics lies in innovation rather than expansion. Master in Educatioanl Management Open University System PUP Mr. Allan C. Timbal Educational Planning