Effects of Colored Paper to the Mathematical Ability of Grade Iv Students
“The Effects of Using Colored Paper on the Mathematical Ability of Grade IV Students of Bancod Elementary School S. Y. 2011-2012” Diane Claire P. Abutin Arleth V. Barone An experimental research presented to the faculty of the Department of Social Sciences and Humanities, College of Arts and Sciences, CvSU Indang, Cavite in Partial Fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Psychology with contribution # ER6 prepared under supervision of Ms.
Alma Fatima Reyes. INTRODUCTION Do you feel anxious in a yellow room? Does the color blue make you feel calm and relaxed?
Artists and interior designers have long understood how color can dramatically affect moods, feelings and emotions. It is a powerful communication tool and can be used to signal action, influence mood and cause physiological reactions. Certain colors can raise blood pressure, increase metabolism or cause eyestrain. Color provides us with much of our information concerning the world in which we live.
Color is what we see or more important, what we think we see. (Nickerson, 2006) According to Nickerson (2006), to experience color vision there must be some sort of receptor and response mechanism to receive and interpret light.
Color is light, which travels to us in waves from the sun, on the same electro-magnetic spectrum as radio and television waves, microwaves, x-rays etc. Light is the only part of the spectrum that we can see, which perhaps explains why we take it less seriously than the invisible power of the other rays. Sir Isaac Newton demonstrated that light travels in waves, when he shone white light through a triangular prism and, when the different wavelengths of light refracted at different angles; he was able to demonstrate that the colors of the rainbow (the spectrum) are the component parts of light.
When light strikes any colored object, the object will absorb only the wavelengths that exactly match its own atomic structure and reflect the rest – which is what we see. Turn this around and it is easy to understand how the color of anything is a clear indication of its atomic structure or, in simple terms, what it is made of. When light strikes the human eye, the wavelengths do so in different ways, influencing our perceptions. In the retina, they are converted into electrical impulses that pass to the hypothalamus, the part of the brain governing our hormones and our endocrine system.
Studies have also shown that certain colors can have an impact on performance.
Exposing students to the color red prior to an exam has been shown to have a negative impact on test performance. More recently, researchers discovered that the color red causes people to react with greater speed and force, something that might prove useful during athletic activities. Statement of the Problem The main purpose of the study is to determine the effects of using colored paper on the mathematical ability of Grade IV Students of Bancod Elementary School S. Y. 2011-2012.
Specifically it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the mathematical ability of Grade IV students before using colored paper? 2. What is the mathematical ability of Grade IV students after using colored paper? 3. Is there a difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the mathematical exam of Grade IV Students of Bancod Elementary School S. Y. 2011-2012? Objectives of the Study Generally, the study aimed to determine the effects of using colored paper on the mathematical ability of Grade IV Students of Bancod Elementary School S.
Y. 2011-2012. Specifically, this study aimed to: 1.
Determine the mathematical ability of the Grade IV students before using colored paper. 2. Determine the mathematical ability of the Grade IV students after using colored paper.
3. Determine the difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the math exam. Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test math exam scores. Significance of the Study The study is believed to be beneficial to the following sectors: Respondents The study may help to improve the mathematical ability of the respondents they have especially by using colored paper instead of plain paper.
School The results of the study may pave way to the enhancement of the mathematical ability not only of the students but also of the teachers. Community It will serve as a great help for people who are not good at mathematics.
Academe To assist students across various levels of the use of colored paper on mathematical tests. This study could further enhance school’s new teacher training and professional development programs. Future Researchers This study may serve as reference to further this research. Scope and Limitations
The study focused on the effects of colored paper on the mathematical ability of Grade IV students of Bancod Elementary School S. Y 2011-2012.
The study will be limited to the selected 17 students of Bancod Elementary School S. Y 2011-2012. Questionnaires were used to gather data and later on analyzed. The study will not include other grade levels and the time to conduct the study is very limited. Time and Place of the Study The study was conducted at Bancod Elementary School-Indang, Cavite from January to March 2012. Theoretical Framework Principles of Color Math
The similarity to commonly applied basics in mathematics and algebra will make these initial color principles appear somewhat elementary.
However, their value will become apparent as the problems that they will encounter become increasingly complex. The diagram below illustrates the principle of symmetry that states that the order in which colors are added to one another does not alter the outcome. | |Figure 1. Color A + Color B = Color B + Color A | | |[pic] |
The addition (or subtraction) of two or more colors will likely cause a visible change in hue but we must also pay particular attention to the cumulative volume of the operation. For example, mixing one measurable unit of color with another yields twice the volume of the resulting color. The following diagram highlights this change in quantity using simple, like colors.
| |Figure 2(a). 1 part Color A + 1 part Color A = 2 parts Color A | | |[pic] |
Also, this principle of cumulative volume applies to those operations involving varying colors as well. | |Figure 2(b). 1 Color A + 1 Color B = 2 Color C | | |[pic] | | | | This theory explains how the color helps in better understanding of mathematics. By the use of color, solving a simple math/elementary level problems can be a lot easier.
Conceptual Framework Figure 1. The figure shows that the mathematical ability is determine through pre-test and with the treatment of colored on the post test. Definition of Terms The following terms will be defined conceptually and operationally for easier understanding of the study. Colored paper- the treatment used to determine if it can improve mathematical ability of the respondents Mathematical ability- is the skill to perform calculations etc in the formal language of mathematics. It is used to determine the effect of the colored paper on the respondents.
Review of Related Literature In this chapter presents relevant information gathered from different books, internet and other resources for the problem cited in this study.
History of Bancod Elementary School In 1950, formal schooling was started in barangay Bancod, but since there was no building yet, it was done in the chapel. The leader then was Mrs. Madlangsacay. After two years, when there were four grades already, they transferred to the house of Mrs. Domingo Ocampo and Mr.
Marcos Ocampo. Several years later, the house of Mrs. Manuela Pena was utilized.
Mrs. Pena herself taught there for about four years and then transferred to the school present location with a building named Mabolo which was made in 1963. Marcos type building was constructed in 1968.
During that time, Mrs. Matel arrived in Bancod primary school. She became the teacher of Grade III and Grade IV. Other teachers who taught in Bancod were Mrs. Roderos, Mrs.
Penaflorida, Mrs. Autor and Mrs. Angelina Pena. It was 1977 when the school become a complete elementary. The total lot area of the school during that time was 5000 sq.
m. which was purchased and another 400 meters was donated in 1952. The teachers who served the school from 1982 onwards were as followed: Mrs. Nery Romero, Mrs. Amelia Patag, Mrs. Laura Sermania, Mrs.
Carmelita P. Suarez, Mr. Antonio Constante, Ms. Felisa del Mundo, Mrs. Lourdes N, Cristal, Mrs. Victoria Ersando, Mr.
Marcos I. Ramos, ms. Marilou H. Marasigan, Mrs. Rienita R. Pellos, Mrs.
Flordeliza M. Jeciel, Mrs. Lorena A. Custacio and Mrs. Basiliza R. Digma.
Mrs. Lourdes Lorenzana was the school’s first head teacher up to 1985. When she retired in 1986, Mrs. Lucita L.
Cruzpe served the school for six years.
In 1992, Mrs. Antonia P. Arias became the school head of Bancod Elementary School. She headed the school for five years until her promotion came. Mrs.
Lerma V. Pena took her position as school head in 1997. She led the school for seven years. Then an alumnus of Bancod Elementary School, Mr. Marcos I.
Ramos came in 2004 and led the school for three years. Mrs. Melanie M. Babaan got the position and stayed in Bancod for three years. At present, the school head of Bancod Elementary School is Mrs.
Basiliza R. Digma, another alumnus of the school.
The teachers are Mrs. Corazon L. Glomar, Mrs. Lorna A.
Suarez, Mrs. Aida P. Ilagan, Mrs. Marilou M. Pitong, Mrs.
Lourdes N. Cristal, Mrs. Teresa G. Rodil and Ms. Shirley P.
Suarez. At present, Bancod Elementary School has a total enrollment of 258 pupils, 121 are male and 137 are female. Psychological Properties Of Colours There are four psychological primary colours – red, blue, yellow and green. They relate respectively to the body, the mind, the emotions and the essential balance between these three. The psychological properties of the eleven basic colours are as follows :
RED. Physical Positive: Physical courage, strength, warmth, energy, basic survival, ‘fight or flight’, stimulation, masculinity, excitement.
Negative: Defiance, aggression, visual impact, strain. Being the longest wavelength, red is a powerful colour. Although not technically the most visible, it has the property of appearing to be nearer than it is and therefore it grabs our attention first. Hence its effectiveness in traffic lights the world over. Its effect is physical; it stimulates us and raises the pulse rate, giving the impression that time is passing faster than it is.
It relates to the masculine principle and can activate the “fight or flight” instinct.
Red is strong, and very basic. Pure red is the simplest colour, with no subtlety. It is stimulating and lively, very friendly. At the same time, it can be perceived as demanding and aggressive. BLUE. Intellectual.
Positive: Intelligence, communication, trust, efficiency, serenity, duty, logic, coolness, reflection, calm. Negative: Coldness, aloofness, lack of emotion, unfriendliness. Blue is the colour of the mind and is essentially soothing; it affects us mentally, rather than the physical reaction we have to red.
Strong blues will stimulate clear thought and lighter, soft blues will calm the mind and aid concentration. Consequently it is serene and mentally calming.
It is the colour of clear communication. Blue objects do not appear to be as close to us as red ones. Time and again in research, blue is the world’s favourite colour. However, it can be perceived as cold, unemotional and unfriendly. YELLOW. Emotional Positive: Optimism, confidence, self-esteem, extraversion, emotional strength, friendliness, creativity.
Negative: Irrationality, fear, emotional fragility, depression, anxiety, suicide.
The yellow wavelength is relatively long and essentially stimulating. In this case the stimulus is emotional, therefore yellow is the strongest colour, psychologically. The right yellow will lift our spirits and our self-esteem; it is the colour of confidence and optimism. Too much of it, or the wrong tone in relation to the other tones in a colour scheme, can cause self-esteem to plummet, giving rise to fear and anxiety.
Our “yellow streak” can surface. GREEN. Balance Positive: Harmony, balance, refreshment, universal love, rest, restoration, reassurance, environmental awareness, equilibrium, peace.
Negative: Boredom, stagnation, blandness, enervation. Green strikes the eye in such a way as to require no adjustment whatever and is, therefore, restful. Being in the centre of the spectrum, it is the colour of balance – a more important concept than many people realise.
When the world about us contains plenty of green, this indicates the presence of water, and little danger of famine, so we are reassured by green, on a primitive level. Negatively, it can indicate stagnation and, incorrectly used, will be perceived as being too bland. VIOLET. Spiritual
Positive: Spiritual awareness, containment, vision, luxury, authenticity, truth, quality. Negative: Introversion, decadence, suppression, inferiority. The shortest wavelength is violet, often described as purple.
It takes awareness to a higher level of thought, even into the realms of spiritual values. It is highly introvertive and encourages deep contemplation, or meditation. It has associations with royalty and usually communicates the finest possible quality. Being the last visible wavelength before the ultra-violet ray, it has associations with time and space and the cosmos.
Excessive use of purple can bring about too much introspection and the wrong tone of it communicates something cheap and nasty, faster than any other colour. ORANGE.
Positive: Physical comfort, food, warmth, security, sensuality, passion, abundance, fun. Negative: Deprivation, frustration, frivolity, immaturity. Since it is a combination of red and yellow, orange is stimulating and reaction to it is a combination of the physical and the emotional. It focuses our minds on issues of physical comfort – food, warmth, shelter etc. – and sensuality. It is a ‘fun’ colour.
Negatively, it might focus on the exact opposite – deprivation.
This is particularly likely when warm orange is used with black. Equally, too much orange suggests frivolity and a lack of serious intellectual values. PINK. Positive: Physical tranquillity, nurture, warmth, femininity, love, sexuality, survival of the species.
Negative: Inhibition, emotional claustrophobia, emasculation, physical weakness. Being a tint of red, pink also affects us physically, but it soothes, rather than stimulates. (Interestingly, red is the only colour that has an entirely separate name for its tints. Tints of blue, green, yellow, etc. are simply called light blue, light greenetc. Pink is a powerful colour, psychologically.
It represents the feminine principle, and survival of the species; it is nurturing and physically soothing. Too much pink is physically draining and can be somewhat emasculating. GREY. Positive: Psychological neutrality. Negative: Lack of confidence, dampness, depression, hibernation, lack of energy.
Pure grey is the only colour that has no direct psychological properties. It is, however, quite suppressive. A virtual absence of colour is depressing and when the world turns grey we are instinctively conditioned to draw in and prepare for hibernation.
Unless the precise tone is right, grey has a dampening effect on other colours used with it. Heavy use of grey usually indicates a lack of confidence and fear of exposure.
BLACK. Positive: Sophistication, glamour, security, emotional safety, efficiency, substance. Negative: Oppression, coldness, menace, heaviness. Black is all colours, totally absorbed. The psychological implications of that are considerable.
It creates protective barriers, as it absorbs all the energy coming towards you, and it enshrouds the personality.
Black is essentially an absence of light, since no wavelengths are reflected and it can, therefore be menacing; many people are afraid of the dark. Positively, it communicates absolute clarity, with no fine nuances. It communicates sophistication and uncompromising excellence and it works particularly well with white. Black creates a perception of weight and seriousness. It is a myth that black clothes are slimming: The truth behind the myth is that black is the most recessive colour a matter of not drawing attention to yourself, rather than actually making you look slimmer.
WHITE. Positive: Hygiene, sterility, clarity, purity, cleanness, simplicity, sophistication, efficiency. Negative: Sterility, coldness, barriers, unfriendliness, elitism. Just as black is total absorption, so white is total reflection. In effect, it reflects the full force of the spectrum into our eyes. Thus it also creates barriers, but differently from black, and it is often a strain to look at.
It communicates, “Touch me not! ” White is purity and, like black, uncompromising; it is clean, hygienic, and sterile. The concept of sterility can also be negative.
Visually, white gives a heightened perception of space. The negative effect of white on warm colours is to make them look and feel garish. BROWN. Positive: Seriousness, warmth, Nature, earthiness, reliability, support.
Negative: Lack of humour, heaviness, lack of sophistication. Brown usually consists of red and yellow, with a large percentage of black. Consequently, it has much of the same seriousness as black, but is warmer and softer. It has elements of the red and yellow properties. Brown has associations with the earth and the natural world. It is a solid, reliable olour and most people find it quietly supportive – more positively than the ever-popular black, which is suppressive, rather than supportive.
(Angela Wright, http://www. colour-affects. co. uk/how-it-works) Effect Of Colors: Blue Boosts Creativity, While Red Enhances Attention To Detail It turns out they both can, it just depends on the nature of the task or message. The study, which could have major implications for advertising and interior design, finds that red is the most effective at enhancing our attention to detail, while blue is best at boosting our ability to think creatively. Previous research linked blue and red to enhanced cognitive performance, but disagreed on which provides the greatest boost,” says Juliet Zhu of UBC’s Sauder School of Business, author of the study which will appear in the Feb.
5 issue ofScience. “It really depends on the nature of the task. ” Between 2007 and 2008, the researchers tracked more than 600 participants’ performance on six cognitive tasks that required either detail-orientation or creativity. Most experiments were conducted on computers, with a screen that was red, blue or white.
Red boosted performance on detail-oriented tasks such as memory retrieval and proofreading by as much as 31 per cent compared to blue.
Conversely, for creative tasks such as brainstorming, blue environmental cues prompted participants to produce twice as many creative outputs as when under the red colour condition. These variances are caused by different unconscious motivations that red and blue activate, says Zhu, noting that colour influences cognition and behavior through learned associations. “Thanks to stop signs, emergency vehicles and teachers’ red pens, we ssociate red with danger, mistakes and caution,” says Zhu, whose previous research has looked at the impact of ceiling height on consumer choices. “The avoidance motivation, or heightened state, that red activates makes us vigilant and thus helps us perform tasks where careful attention is required to produce a right or wrong answer. ” Conversely, blue encourages us to think outside the box and be creative, says Zhu, noting that the majority of participants believed incorrectly that blue would enhance their performance on all cognitive tasks.
Through associations with the sky, the ocean and water, most people associate blue with openness, peace and tranquility,” says Zhu, who conducted the research with UBC PhD candidate Ravi Mehta. “The benign cues make people feel safe about being creative and exploratory. Not surprisingly it is people’s favourite colour. ” The study finds that these trends carry over to our receptivity to consumer packaging and marketing messages. Using a series of fictional ads and product packages, researchers explored how colour impacts our receptivity to consumer packaging and advertising.
It found that when the background colour was red, people formed more favorable evaluations of products when its ad featured specific product details as opposed to evocative, creative messaging. However, when the background was blue, the opposite pattern of results emerged. Similarly, people were more receptive to a new, fictional brand of toothpaste that focused on negative messages such as “cavity prevention” when the background colour was red, whereas people were more receptive to aspirational messages such as “tooth whitening” when the background colour was rendered in blue. ScienceDaily, http://www. sciencedaily. com /releases/2009/02/090205142143.
htm. ) Paper “Paper is a sheet of interlaced fibers- usually cellulose fibers from plants, but sometimes from cloth rags or other fibrous materials- that is formed by pulping the fibers and causing them to felt or mat, to form a solid surface. The evolution writing materials culminated in the development paper. The invention of paper is generally attributed to a Chinese court official, Ts’ai Lun, in about AD 105, although probably made paper from silk fibers even earlier.
Ts’ai Lun however was the first to succeed in making a paper from vegetable fibers- tree bark, rags and old fish netting.
” (Lexicon Universal Encyclopedia, 1994) Mathematics “Mathematics is the study of numbers, sets of points and various abstract elements, together with relations between them and operations performed on them. Mathematics deals with size, order, shape and other relationships among qualities. ” (Grolier Encyclopedia, 1991) Mathematics in Arts “Although we do not usually think of artists as mathematicians, there are several mathematical concepts or ideas that are very important in many of the creative arts.
For instance, both painting and sculpture require an understanding of the mathematical principles of proportion, symmetry and perspective. A knowledge of geometry can help these artists see their work as the putting together and the taking apart of basic shapes and figures in two dimensions, as in painting, or in three dimension, as in sculpture.
Musicians must be able to count piece of music to distinguish between half-notes and eight-notes, and to be able to change from one rhythmic pattern to another. The New Book of Knowledge, 2007)” A critical examination of the effects of colored paper on the academic achievement of fourth graders in reading comprehension and vocabulary. “Several assumptions were made prior to the study. One of these assumptions was that a wide range of students including gifted and talented, average students, students with disabilities and slow learners would profit from using colored paper as the background for the text on reading comprehension and vocabulary tests.
Another assumption was if scores improved using colored paper for the text on reading comprehension tests, colored paper could be used for all materials in all subject areas that require reading of text for the purpose of increasing reading fluency and comprehension of the material being learned.
” (Duggan, M. , http://www. grin. com/en/doc/272812/a-critical-examination-of-the-effects-of-colored-paper-on-the-academic) The Effects of Using Colored Paper in Presenting Mathematics Assignments and Test. “Tremendous effort has gone into the modern-day classroom to make the environment more conducive to learning.
Color is an important part of that environment affecting moods and emotions.
Grangaard (1993), suggests that certain prescribed environments of color and light may literally affect not only the psychological status of a person but the physical status as well. The study revealed that when children were in the normal classroom setting during off-task behavior, blood pressures were higher than when the children were in the prescribed classroom environment. The implication here is that certain environmental circumstances reduce negative physiological factors associated with intimidating subject matter.
A more substantial aspect of the classroom environment is the information pertaining to subject matter and how it is presented. Enormous amounts of information are imparted to students on a daily basis.
In order for that information to be useful, it must be processed, retained, transferable, and applied in appropriate situations. The skills needed for learning and retaining information are acquired through conscious efforts. Some studies have found that color-coding helps to organize information and is easily processed (Williams, 1966; Wallace, 1998).
Another study revealed students who used self-paced color-coded presentation materials sustained longer attention and interaction with the content thereby enhancing their association of memory structure (Lamberski, 1980). In that same study however, the presence or absence of color in evaluation presentation had no effect on student achievement. Some studies have shown a significant connection between color and consciousness.
Nielsen (1999) summarized that color has been associated with the stimulation of cognitive processing by evoking separate states of consciousness.
This in turn sets the stage for short-term and long-term memory. According to Stowers (1998), the participants in her study learned both simple and complex rules more quickly when color was used as the stimulus as opposed to the participants presented the same rules in black and white. Students who use color as a mechanism to highlight information generally have better recall and performed better than students who use unmarked information (Worley, 1999; Gaddy, 1996). The effect on recall implies better retention and better performance on test.
Gittelman (1998) concluded from his study that color and motion had a positive impact on the results of paper-based knowledge information. ” (Clifton, E. , http://www. harding. edu/thornton/Colorpaper. htm) The Effects Of Using Colored Paper to Boost Response-Rates to Surveys and Questionnaires “Many people have speculated over the last 80 years or so about the possibilities of using colored paper to boost response-rates to surveys and questionnaires, and several studies have been carried out.
Most of these enquiries report no significant effects from using colored paper, although there have been some exceptions.
In this investigation we pooled together the results from all of the experimental studies known to us on the topic and we carried out a meta-analysis to see if there might be a positive effect for colored paper overall. The results indicated that this was not the case, for we found no significant differences between the response rates to white and to colored paper in general. However, when we considered separately the most common colors used, it appeared that pink paper had the greatest effect. “One of the first considerations [to obtain a high response-rate] is the color of paper used in mail questionnaires.
United States government officials who are responsible for the mailing of several million questionnaires every year have definitely determined that yellow paper gives the highest percentage of returns, with pink next in effectiveness, while all dark colors give much smaller returns. ” (Hartley, J. & Rutherford,A. ,http://baywood. metapress. com/app/home/contribution.
asp? referrer=parent=issue,3,6;journal,36,163;linkingpublicationresults,1:300326,1) Synthesis Colors have different types and each type of colors affect our affect our body, mind and emotions. And colors were also used making paper which we called colored paper.
But does colored paper affect mathematical ability? According to Wright color blue helps in improving math and science ability and green enhances creativity. While according to ScienceDaily color blue boosts creativity whereas red enhances attention to details. Some studies have showed that the use of colored paper can improve the mathematical ability of the students like the study on presenting mathematics assignments and test on colored paper by Clifton, it proves that colored paper enhances mathematical ability while there were also studies that showed that use of colored paper has no effect on the mathematical ability of students.
METHODOLOGY The researchers conducted this study by the use of the following instruments utilized in the study together with the research design present in this chapter. Research Design The study used Experimental Design Within-subject design or also known as repeated measure design. Within-subject design is a design which subjects undergo multiple treatments and scores are all obtained from the same sample of participants. There are two fundamental advantages of the within subjects design: a) power and b) reduction in error variance associated with individual differences. Bordens and Abbott, 1991) Design Notation O1 X O2 In this notation, O1 represents the pre-test wherein the respondents will answer the mathematical ability test in a plain bond paper; X signifies the treatment used and O2 stands for the post test in which the respondents were asked to answer the mathematical ability exam in a colored paper.
Sampling Technique The population of the study is the Grade IV students of Bancod Elementary School with a total number of 30. The researchers obtained the complete list of Grade IV students for school year 2011-2012.
The list was numbered from 1 to 17. Using the table of random numbers, a sample size of 17 students was picked. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents equally.
Simple random sampling according to Goodwin (1995) is the most fundamental type of probability. In essence, this entire means is that each of the population has an equal chance if being selected as a member of the sample. And also according to Goodwin (1995), simple random sampling is often an effective, practical way to create a representative sample.
It is sometimes the method of choice for ethical reasons as well. In situations in which only a small group can receive some benefit or must incur some cost and there is no other reasonable basis for decision making, simple random sampling is the fairest method. Respondents In the study, the researchers selected seventeen respondents from the Grade IV students of Bancod Elementary School.
17 students were selected to take the pre-test and also the post test. Research Instrument The researchers adapted their questionnaire entitled Mathematical Ability IV on the book used by the school.
Then the researchers consulted three teachers to validate the questionnaire made. Necessary revisions were made after the questionnaire was validated. The questionnaire is a 20 item test that assesses the mathematical ability of the respondents.
The pre-test questionnaires were printed on a plain bond paper and same set of questionnaires were printed on a colored paper for post test. The questionnaires were composed of rational numbers, decimals, place value, word problem, fraction, division, subtraction, addition, multiplication and relations between operations.
Treatment The researchers used colored paper to determine if there is a difference between the uses of plain bond paper on the mathematical ability of Grade IV students. The researchers waited for four days after the pre-test was given to administer the post test. Same set of questions were given to the similar respondents who took the pre-test. The respondents were given 20 minutes to answer the test.
Data Gathering Procedure A letter of request was given to the principal of Bancod Elementary School in Indang, Cavite to allow the researcher to conduct the study.
The researcher adapted a questionnaire from the book used by the school for their study. Then, the involved respondents were asked to answer the questionnaire about mathematics for Grade IV students in a plain bond paper for the pre-test and after 4 days, same set of questionnaires on a colored paper for the post test were given to the same respondents. The method of collecting data used is the normative survey. The instrument used to collect is the questionnaire.
The respondents’ scores and mean scores were rated as excellent, very satisfactory, satisfactory, fair and poor.
If they obtained the score of 17-20 they were rated as excellent, 13-16 as very satisfactory, 9-12 as satisfactory, while 5-8 as fair and 0-4 as poor. While the mean score is rated as excellent if it attains 4. 24-5. 00, 3.
43-4. 23 as very satisfactory , 2. 61-3. 42 as satisfactory while 1. 81-2. 6 as fair and of 1-1.
80 as poor. The verbal interpretation of the ratings are as follows: if the respondents attain a rating of excellent it means that they were able to answer all of the concepts of mathematics included on the test and exceeds grade level expectations and show exemplary performance or understanding of mathematics.
If they got the rating of very satisfactory it shows that they were able to answer most of the mathematical ability questions and they meet the grade level expectations and demonstrate solid performance or understanding. If they got a satisfactory rating it means that the respondents’ performance and understanding on mathematics are emerging or developing but there are some errors and mastery is not thorough. If they got a rating of fair it means that that their having trouble and difficulty answering the questions on the test and they are somehow adequate for grade level expectations.
And if they got a poor rating it shows that they do not understand and can’t answer the problem and concepts involved on the mathematical ability test and they are not adequate for grade level expectations and indicates that the students has serious errors, omissions or misconceptions. Statistical Analysis The researchers used frequency to identify how many students got a rating of excellent, very satisfactory, satisfactory, fair and poor. Furthermore they used percentage to know the proportions of the rating of the respondents.
The researchers also make use of the mean to determine the average score of the respondents on the pre-test and post test. They also used standard deviation to distinguish if the data is homogenous or heterogeneous. The study used Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test which is used when we wish to compare two sets of scores that come from the same participants.
This can occur when we wish to investigate any change in scores from one time point to another or individuals are subjected to more than one condition. (https://statistics. laerd. om/spss-tutorials/wilcoxon-signed-rank-test-using-spss-statistics. php) It was used in the study to reject or accept the null hypothesis.
It was also used to determine if there is a significant difference between the use of plain bond paper and colored paper. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This section presents the findings of the study which were analyzed and interpreted accordingly. The study on effects of colored paper to the mathematical ability of grade IV students of Bancod Elementary School is composed of four specified problems.
Tables were devised to clearly present the data gathered. Table 1 shows the rating that is used to identify the level of mathematical ability of the respondents, the computed mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage of the data gathered. Table 1.
Mathematical ability before exposure to colored paper Rating FrequencyPercentage Excellent 2 11. 8% Very Satisfactory 3 17. 6% Satisfactory 5 29. 4% Fair 5 29. 4% Poor 2 11.
8% Total 17 100. 0% Mean 2. 824 Standard Deviation 1. 21873 Legend: 1-1. 80- Poor 1.
81-2. 6- Fair 2. 61-3. 42- Satisfactory 3. 43-4. 23- Very Satisfactory 4.
24-5. 00- Excellent The Pre-test scores are shown in Table 1. The table shows that there are 17 respondents who took the pre-test. The respondents are all Grade IV students of Bancod Elementary School. It shows that 2 or 11.
8% respondents obtained an excellent rating when it comes to answering mathematical examinations on pre-test, 3 or 17. 6% students achieved a rating of very satisfactory, 5 or 29. % students attained a satisfactory rating, 5 or 29. 4% get a rating of fair and 2 or 11. 8% students gain a poor rating.
The standard deviation attained is 1. 21873 that is interpreted as heterogonous data and the mean score obtained is 2. 8824 which is interpreted as satisfactory which means that the respondents’ performance and understanding on mathematics are emerging or developing but there are some errors and mastery is not thorough. Some studies have found that color-coding helps to organize information and is easily processed (Williams, 1966; Wallace, 1998).
Another study revealed students who used self-paced color-coded presentation materials sustained longer attention and interaction with the content thereby enhancing their association of memory structure (Lamberski, 1980). In that same study however, the presence or absence of color in evaluation presentation had no effect on student achievement.
Table 2 shows the rating that is used to identify the level of mathematical ability of the respondents, the computed mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage of the data gathered. Table 2.
Mathematical ability after exposure to colored paper Rating FrequencyPercentage Excellent 3 17. 6% Very Satisfactory 4 23. 5% Satisfactory 2 11.
8% Fair 5 29. 4% Poor 3 17. 6% Total 17 100. 0% Mean 2. 9412 Standard Deviation 1.
42486 Legend: 1-1. 80- Poor 1. 81-2. 6- Fair 2. 61-3. 42- Satisfactory 3.
43-4. 23- Very Satisfactory 4. 24-5. 00- Excellent The Post test scores are shown in Table 2.
The table shows that there are 17 respondents who took the pre-test. The respondents are all Grade IV students of Bancod Elementary School.
It shows that 3 or 17. 6% respondents obtained an excellent rating when it comes to answering mathematical examinations on pre-test, 4 or 23. 5% students achieved a rating of very satisfactory, 2 or 11. 8% students attained a satisfactory rating, 5 or 29. 4% get a rating of fair and 3 or 17.
6% students gain a poor rating. The standard deviation attained is 1. 43486 that is interpreted as heterogonous data and the mean score obtained is 2. 412 which is interpreted as satisfactory which can be interpreted that the respondents’ performance and understanding on mathematics are emerging or developing but there are some errors and mastery is not thorough. According to Stowers (1998), the participants in her study learned both simple and complex rules more quickly when color was used as the stimulus as opposed to the participants presented the same rules in black and white. Students who use color as a mechanism to highlight information generally have better recall and performed better than students who use unmarked information (Worley, 1999; Gaddy, 1996).
The table shows the pre-test and post test mean scores and its interpretation. Assmp. Sig. and the decision is also included in the table. Table 3.
Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test Results TEST MEAN INTERPRETATION ASSMP. SIG. DECISION Pre-test2. 8824 Satisfactory 0. 000 Reject Ho Post test2. 9412 Satisfactory 0.
050 Table 3 shows the pre-test and post test difference. The mean score of pre-test is 2. 8824which is interpreted as satisfactory, while the mean score of post test is 2. 9412 which is also interpreted as satisfactory.
The respondents have satisfactory rating throughout the pre-test and post test. The table shows that the mean score during pre-test is lower compared to post test.
Therefore the respondents had a hard time answering the pre-test compared to the post test. With this, the researchers will reject Ho which states that there is no significant difference between the pre-test and post test scores and accept Ha that states that there is significant difference between the pre-test and post test scores because as the rule applies, accept Ho if Asymp.
Sig is greater than or equal to . 050 asymp. sig; reject otherwise. Since the researchers got the Asymp.
Sig. of . 000 that is less than the 0. 050 the researchers have to reject Ho. Therefore the researchers conclude that colored paper improves the mathematical ability of Grade IV students of Bancod Elementary School.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendation of the study. Summary The study aimed to 1. ) determine the mathematical ability of Grade IV students before and after exposure to the colored paper 2. determine if there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores of the mathematical exam of Grade IV Students of Bancod Elementary School, and 3. ) know the effects of using colored paper to the mathematical ability of the students.
The study was conducted at Bancod Elementary School Indang, Cavite from January to March 2012. The sampling method used was the simple random sampling. 17 Grade IV students were selected from the official list of students through the use of table of random numbers. The research design used was Within-Subject Design.
Questionnaires printed on a bond paper were used as instrument to gather data from the pre-test and questionnaires printed on a colored paper were used to collect data from the post test. The study used Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test to interpret and analyze the data.
The results of the study were before the students exposure to the colored paper, most of the respondents obtained the ratings fair and satisfactory while least of the respondents attained the ratings of fair and excellent and the mean of the mathematical ability of Grade 4 pupils is 2. 824 while after the students exposure to the colored paper, most of the respondents attained a rating of fair and least of the respondents obtained a rating of satisfactory and the mean of the mathematical ability of Grade 4 students is 2. 9412. The researchers conclude that there is a significant difference of 0. 0588 between the pre-test and post test scores of the mathematical ability exam of Grade IV students. And that colored paper enhances the mathematical ability of the respondents.
Conclusion Based on the findings and the data gathered, the following conclusions were drawn.
That the mathematical ability of Grade 4 students before exposure to colored paper is satisfactory with a mean of 2. 8824 which means that the respondents’ performance and understanding on mathematics are emerging or developing but there are some errors and mastery is not thorough and the mathematical ability of Grade 4 students. And after exposure to colored paper is also satisfactory with a mean of 2. 9412 which also means that the respondents’ performance and understanding on mathematics are emerging or developing but there are some errors and mastery is not thorough. The increase of 0. 558 in mean proves that there is significant difference between using colored paper and using plain white paper in measuring the mathematical ability of the Grade 4 students, thus colored paper helps to improve the mathematical ability of Grade 4 students. Recommendation Based on the findings and the conclusions drawn from this study, the researchers recommend that the school provide a better Math teaching method which are on the newest trend so that students will improve more and be able to cope up in the fast changing world and can enhance the skills of the pupils so that they will be competitive not only academically, but also globally.
The researchers also suggest that the school may use our research as a teaching material to further enhance the mathematical ability of the students, that further study can be conducted focused on other skills other than mathematics and that future researchers may use other research design or other methods. ———————– Mathematical Ability of the respondents Pre-test Colored Paper (Treatment) Post-test