How to Make Project Report
Report writing is one of the primary objects of any student who are in the threshold of completing their graduation.
It is to be noted that the final report is not to be done for sheer formality. This report acts as a tool for judging the professional skill of the new engineer. It is also considered to be an extended service for the engineering students who might require information. Remember this report will be subjected to critical analysis by many readers.Hence to prepare the final report, an engineering graduate must have good knowledge about the practical skills that will be required to solve an engineering problem. All sorts of resources must be compiled to create a report.
Experimenting by using the lab, analyzing the theories, observation, details with regard to how to use the equipments, and work experience with others. The most important aspect is one must have a good flair for writing and ideas must be well communicated and the information should be authentic. There are structural guidelines that one needs to follow while preparing a project report for final year engineering.This format is applicable to all types of students. Title Page The following details must be given · Title · Authors full name · Discipline and degree · Appropriate industrial and other collaboration · Month and year of submission It is important that this page will not show any page number Abstract Here one has to pint out the main ideas of what the project is about, how it was visualized, and what has been achieved. All this must fit into one page.
Content List Here one must give a complete list of what the report will contain including the abstract. Make sure that the title page is not included in this list.Here you will be providing chapter wise list. List of Tables/Figures A list of tables and figures must be provided if the report contains tables/figures. The list must include table/figure number, title of the table/figure and also page number. These must be numbered sequential throughout the document.
The table/figure must highlight clearly the points you are making. Fit the contents of the table within a page. Use a smaller font if necessary or place it in a landscape mode. Acknowledgements It is normal to thank all the people who have helped you and provided support.It could be your guide/supervisor. Acknowledgements should be short and business like.
Background. This area deals with the subject area of the project. · Chapter 1 : Background – Motivation – Problems description – Objectives of the work – Organization of the report Introduction Here you must include specific topic related problems that you would be researching. Include your research design, hypothesis etc. · Chapter 2: Introduction – Details of relevant theory – Review of past/reported work – Brief introduction of the proposed work/solution Methodology This is the main body of the report.This will include the following: · Chapter 3: Deals in accordance with the title that is to be researched.
– Main work – Theory – Simulation software – Solution approach – Design or circuit · Chapter 4: – Method to be described – Presentation of Data – Results – Findings · Chapter 5: Evaluation [ this could be an optional] – Provide objectives of evaluation – Compare with other works Conclusion · Chapter 6: Conclusion – Review of the project in brief – Reiteration of important findings – Suggestion of future work Appendices This has to be numbered sequentially with Appendix 1. Numbering of pages will include appendices.References and Bibliography Usually a number of reference materials will be used in a report. The use of source material should be explicit in the report. Every item mentioned in the report must have an entry in the reference list.
There are many styles that are followed like APA etc. It follows a sequential order Books Title of the book, name of the author, year of publication, and name of the publishers can be included. Journal Author(s) name, year of publication, title of the article, name of the journal, volume, year of publication and page numbers can be included. Website Do not specify as Google/Yahoo.Specify the exact url of the website rather than specifying the top level domain like www.
xyz. com Instead specify as www. xyz. com/abc. html The above is the basic structure of a report.
There are hard fast rules one must apply when writing the report. Some are discussed below: Formatting of the report Please use Microsoft Word so that all information that is explained will have good looks as these help you to avoid rearrangements. Also make sure that the document is Word 2003 compatible. Length Basically there are no hard fast rules and the length can vary from person to person depending on the project.It is advisable for an engineering report to have around 100 pages.
These will include tables and appendices. Language of Report Report must be written in English as this is considered to be consistent form. Certain grammar rules needs to be followed Apostrophes: This is the most common mistakes all students make. In English language the apostrophes is used as a contraction. In an academic writing the words must be written in its full form and words should not be shortened.
Acronyms: Science and engineering fields use lot of acronyms and will be familiar only to specialists who are familiar with the subjects.When using it for first time always give it the expanded version. Colloquialisms: Avoid usage of slang, phrases, idiomatic and chatty expressions while writing a report. In an academic or technical writing avoid using the first person ‘I’ as much as possible and also do not refer to the reader as ‘you’ Grammar: Make your sentences small and write it as whole sentences. Proofread your writing every 3-4 hours so that you will be able understand the text as it was to be meant. Ensure that the writing is clear and it follows the basic grammar rules.
Jargon: Be consistent while using technical terms.Please define and use the same words when you are writing about the same concept. Spelling: There are no excuses for spelling mistakes. It creates a bad impression. Take the help of spell checker or dictionary. Spell checker will not be useful if the words spelt are correct ex.
‘from’ or ‘form’ Hence a manual spell check is advisable to ensure the correct word fits into the sentences. Hence proof reading is always suggested. Typeface and Font Size Times New Roman typeface and font size of 12-point should be used throughout the report except for Appendices.Italics should only be used sparingly for emphasis. Paper High quality 80gm A4 size paper shall be used. The paper should be white in colour, acid free and non-erasable kind.
Printing Printing has to be done on one side only. It is recommended to use a laser or ink jet printer. Avoid dot matrix printers. Corrections Corrections of typographical errors, or changes in the text, figures, or tables, must be made as cleanly and invisibly as possible. Do not use Correction fluid. Corrections should be made on the original word document before printing the problem page.
MarginsThe margin on the document must measure according to the following specifications: Top : 25mm Bottom : 20mm Left : 20mm Right : 20mm Spacing/Justification Text should be typed, one and a half-spaced, left-right justified on one side of the paper only. For captions of figures and tables, single spacing can be used. Pagination Page numbers are to be placed at least 15 mm from the edge of the page at the bottom centre of the page. Every page except the title page must be numbered. Title page is ‘i’ but is not numbered. Preliminary pages are to be numbered in lower case Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv etc).
The main text pages are to be numbered in numerals and all pages must be numbered consecutively and continuously. Header A header should be included at the top of each page from the title page. It will include candidate’s name, qualification sought and calendar year. Paragraph This should be separated by a single blank line. Citations Whenever more than 30 words are quoted from other person’s work the authors name should appear in the references.
When small words are quoted, these can be written within quotation marks. Plagiarism This should be avoided at any cost.Try to use the content of the subject matter but do not copy word to word. Words and sentences can be rephrased and written. This can lead to serious trouble and it will be treated as an offence as many come under the copyright category.
Hence it is to be noted that report writing is an art by itself and one has to follow the normal procedures. Posted by Blogger at 10:12 PM 2 comments Sunday, July 25, 2010 Information Technology ( IT ) Mini Projects – Tips and Latest Trends The wide range of information, data, and knowledge for problem solving and decision making are dealt with Information Technology.Demanding needs of users has always been fulfilled by Information Technology with establishing trends. Before starting with the projects, students should be aware of authentication, and integrity features in their projects. Breaking of passwords and hacking can be avoided using these techniques. Anyhow, the various trends for projects are based on the emerging software technology.
Flash Technology To add multiple types of external data to the given text, images, video, XML and to interact with web pages, Adobe Flash is used. It provides multimedia platform.The main purpose of this technology is to be used in advertisements and games. Both audio and video streams are supported by flash. One of the Object-oriented languages called ActionScript is the language used here by the developers. Flash player includes ActionScript Virtual Machine (AVM).
The compiler, Just-In-Time (JIT), is used for MP3-based audio and bitmap graphics. Flash CS5 is the latest version of Adobe flash which was released on April 12, 2010. Microsoft Silverlight Microsoft Silverlight is developed on web framework and is similar to the functions of those in Adobe Flash.In addition, it also integrates multimedia graphics and interaction with a single runtime environment. Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) and its development tools are supported by Silverlight. The processor x86 with streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) is used by Silverlight.
Also the other processors which support Silverlight include the Intel Pentium III and AMD Athlon XP. Any of the . Net Programming language is supported for Silverlight applications. The developing tools for the application can be used along with the . Net language but should be aware that they can target only the Silverlight core CLR for hosting the pplications and not that of the .
Net Framework CLR since both differs in their own functionalities. 4GDR1 (4. 0. 50524. 0) is the latest version of Silverlight and was released on 03 June 2010 Open Source Software Open source software is newly emerging trend which is one of the best options for the students. The source code can be modified by the students as per the objective of project.
Hence Open source is much flexible than closed version software. Open source software is mainly developed on peer to peer production by collaboration of end product, source material.Open source software can be enhanced by anyone and if you join some open source developers community, you can learn a lot of things directly from the most knowledged persons in the developers community. Even the top companies like Google who are paymasters gives lots of importance to candidates who have worked in open source projects during the interviews. http://sourceforge.
net is one of the biggest open source community and you can engage in one of the groups or even start a new project. Cryptography Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding information.It also refers to confidentiality. It is often seen as a “black art”, which means something others don’t understand but you need to understand. Cryptography is one of the essential aspects for secure communication.
There are many aspects of security and applications ranging from secure commerce to private communication and to protect passwords. Cryptography is necessary for secure communication but it is not sufficient by itself. Here, the text is encrypted first; i. e the plain text is changed to inarticulate garbage. The end user does the reverse process i.
decryption, where the original text is retrieved. There are a lot of algorithms in this area which is used in real time for data protection in sectors like banks, Research, Password Protection and so on. Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the study of controlling properties of an atom and molecules. As the name indicates, it deals with the study of structures sized between 1 and 100 nanometer. It is said that, nanotechnology has a tendency to create new materials and devices which can be used in future in a wide range of fields such as medicine, energy production, electronics and io materials. As they are very small in size, nano structures have a tendency to change its state for transformation of energy.
The two main approaches used in nanotechnology are Bottom-up and Top-down. In bottom-up approach, materials and devices are built from molecular, a component which later assemble themselves chemically and follows the principles of molecular recognition. In top-down approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without any atomic level control. Biotechnology is the best example to show the use of nanotechnology in various fields.Conclusion The upcoming trends mainly focus on security and hacking.
Mobile application for iPhone and Android are great areas to explore with good revenue opportunities as well. If you want to stand out from others, instead of going for some courses, try to contribute for an open source project. Posted by Blogger at 5:13 PM 5 comments Labels: information technology, IT Interview Tips and Placement Tips For Freshers The most anticipated dream of every fresh graduate is to get into a job. An excellent first job will make way for a rewarding career.A systematic approach is needed to get you into your dream job. Here are some tips to stand out from the rest during interviews or campus placements.
Pre-preparative phase Running around at the last moment in order to prepare for an interview is not a wise decision. You need to prepare well in advance. Start by making an impressive resume. Browse the net and go through a few outstanding resumes. Try to grab some knowledge on what makes those resumes outstanding. Make a clean layout of your resume.
Keep away from colours and decorative fonts. Don’t use too many unnecessary words.Too much wordiness will spoil your resume quality. Chart out all your achievements, abilities and outstanding qualities. Highlight your curricular and extra curricular abilities in catchy words. For example, ‘Was the topper of my whole graduate class’, could be written as ‘Topped my class in graduate level’.
Keep it an important point to add things about you that will make an interviewer to decide about you. When you write about the internships, trainings and projects that you have done, describe your contribution in it. Make it a point to write each and every point in one single sentence.As said earlier, cluttering words will render the quality of your resume bad. Throw light on the extracurricular activities where you have outranked. Initially make a rough draft.
You can sharpen it further by making a reliable professional in your field like your lecturer or your Training and Placement Officer (TPO) to read it and make constructive changes in it. You can also make some more well wishers read and make suggestions to incorporate. If you some someone who is working in big corporate, don’t forget to ask their suggestions as well. Keep in touch with your Training and Placement Officer.Collect information about the companies that are going to visit your college for campus interviews.
Try to know more info on the role of these companies and their process of selection. Keep abreast of all the training and placement cell info. Preparative phase 1. Prepare for the interview. Start by reading materials over the internet about interviews. You can make a collection of common questions asked at interviews and prepare answers for those.
2. Try and study about yourself. Recall incidents till now and reflect on them –the things that excited you the most, the happenings you felt good about, the events that made you unhappy, etc.This will give you a study on yourself. You need to know about yourself first, only then can you tell someone else about you. 3.
List your strengths and weaknesses, long term and short term goals, skills, motivations, career interests, etc from interview point of view. This kind of listing will make you answer promptly when you are asked about your abilities, disabilities, etc. If you take time to answer when are questioned, your reliability will be doubted by the interviewer. So will be the case if you blurt out a badly constructed answer.When you give clear and quick answers to such questions, your good decision making ability will be revealed and you will be rewarded suitably.
4. Seek the help of your well placed senior friends who are your well wishers. Ask them if the answers that you have prepared for the list of questions are acceptable. 5. Prepare for written tests.
The problem with some graduates is that they perform well in all other parts of the interview except the written test. So prepare well. Practice writing on a paper whatever you have read. This will help greatly in verbalising your knowledge and in managing your time.Doing well in the written test will greatly help you getting the job offer. 6.
Get prior information on who is visiting your campus and get acquainted with the info of their company in terms of their business, man power, etc. Knowing the interviewing firm will also help you in determining the kind of questions that you will be asked. In case, you cannot make out on what would be asked, be well prepared on a few of your favourite subjects. Some firms would want to know how good your knowledge on your own favourite field is. 7. Practice group discussions with bright fellow students.
You may collect some tips by browsing on how to perform well in GDs. Learn tactics so that you can insist your ideas firmly but without being aggressive. Also make it a point not to be too meekly while you put up your ideas. Practice makes perfection. So practice well to strike a perfect balance of the above said parameters.
8. Also, develop good knowledge of facts and know about recent happenings. Watching daily news, reading newspapers and magazines, etc will help you have a sound awareness of current happenings. 9. Collect more information about the company where you are going to attend the interview.When you have well furnished details of the company, and you say you want to work there, it reveals that you are really interested.
Browse the net to know details of the company’s location, history, goals, changes, products or services, major news in the past few months, etc. You will get less number of technical questions if you divert the interviewer by speaking more about the company. 10. Dress right for the interview. Both for men and women, the best dress code for an interview is being conservative and formal. Avoid decorative and fancy stuff.
Brush your hair and wear only a light make up.Look clean, fresh and impressive. 11. Collect all your educational and extracurricular certificates and neatly arrange them in a file and take them with you for the interview. It would be better if you hold the file in your hands. Present it to the interviewer when you are asked to.
12. Be confident and look confident. Don’t utter words of disbelief to your friends or colleagues at the interview site. Avoid words like “I don’t think I will make it this time”, “I’m not sure”, etc. If you don’t want to say you did well, then keep quiet. You need not say anything at all.