Human Resource Management Final Study Guide Answers
The advances in technology are taking over many of the administrative tasks, like managing employee records and allowing employees to get information and enroll in training, benefits and other programs. HR professionals need to prepare employees to work in foreign locations, because of globalization. In regards to sustainability, an aging workforce means that employers will increasingly ace HRM issues such as retirement planning, and retraining older workers to avoid skill obsolescence.
3. Job analysis is important to HR managers because information gathered in Job analysis is used in so many HR activities/functions. Describe how Job analysis information is used in four different HR activities/ functions.
Job analysis is used in: Human resource planning requires accurate information about the level of skills in all Jobs to ensure that enough employees are available to meet the strategic needs of the corporation. Selection – by determining the tasks that will be performed by the erson hired and the knowledge, skills, and abilities the person must have to perform the Job effectively. Training and Development – After the Job tasks have been identified training can be effectively developed to ensure trainers can prepare people to perform their Jobs successfully.
Performance appraisal – emphasize the characteristics and behaviors of successful performers. 4.
What are the differences among Job analysis, Job descriptions and Job specifications? Job analysis is the process of getting detailed information about Jobs. A Job analysis is where all the ist of the tasks, duties, and responsibilities that a Job entails. Job specification is a list of the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics that an individual must have to perform a Job 5.
Which is not an advantage of employing temporary workers as a means of eliminating a labor shortage? Temporary workers may have little experience. They may also make the full time employees feel threatened, especial after downsizing has occurred. 6. What is downsizing?
Discuss the four major reasons why organizations engage in downsizing. In general, are downsizing strategies successful? List reasons why or why not. Downsizing is the planned elimination of a large number of employees designed to enhance organizational effectiveness.
Reasons for downsizing include: * need to reduce labor costs * technological changes reduce need for labor * mergers and acquisitions reduce bureaucratic overhead * organizations choose to change the location of where they do business Studies show that firms that announce a downsizing campaign show worse, rather than better financial performance. Reasons include: * The long-term effects of an improperly managed downsizing effort can be negative.
Many downsizing campaigns let go of people who turn out to be irreplaceable assets. * Employees who survive the staff purges often become narrow-minded, self-absorbed, and risk- averse. 7. Forecasting indicates the need for skilled technical employees in your company will increase dramatically this year.
If the company continues on its present course, it will experience a substantial labor shortage by year’s end. Something must be done fast, but management is concerned about maintaining its flexibility. Which of the options for avoiding expected labor shortages identified in the text would be ost appropriate under these circumstances? Explain your answer.
To remain flexible and do something fast regarding the upcoming forecasted labor shortage, the company can do one of these or a combination; hire temporary workers, outsource, or offer overtime. Hiring temporary workers helps eliminate a labor shortage. Temporary employment affords firms the flexibility needed to operate efficiently in the face of swings in demand.
8. Define utility and then identify and discuss at least five factors likely to affect the utility of any test. Utility is the degree to which the nformation provided by selection methods enhances the bottom line effectiveness. Reliability, generalization, validity, effectiveness enhances selection process, economic consequences of failure 9.
Identify and discuss two specific ways in which the Americans with Disabilities Act has impacted (or constrained) the process of selecting employees.
Under ADA, a firm must make “reasonable accommodation” to a physically or mentally disabled individual unless doing so would impose “undue hardship” like being cost prohibitive. There have been consequences of this act like increased litigation. The act was passed to protect people with major disabilities, but cases being filed do not reflect Congressional intent. 10. Discuss at least four ways to improve the performance feedback process.
* Be specific, give often frequent (no surprises). Feedback should be given frequently, not once a year. * Create the right context for the discussion.
A hall way would not be an appropriate environment for constructive feedback (criticism). * Focus feedback on behavior or results, not on the person.
* relationship between training, development and careers. Training focuses on elping employees’ performance in the current Jobs. Development refers to formal education, Job experiences, relationships, and assessment of personality and abilities that help employees prepare for the future. Careers are a sequence of positions held within an occupation. A career is a path in which training and development help to get employee to the next level.
12. Describe and discuss the different ways that Job experiences can be used for employee development.
Assume development is most likely to occur when there is a mismatch between the employee’s skills and past experience and the skills required for the Job. Job enlargement refers to adding challenges or new responsibilities to an employee’s current Jobs. Job rotation is the process of systematically moving a single individual from one Job to another over the course of time.
A transfer is a movement of an employee to a different Job assignment in a different area of the company Promotions advances into positions with greater challenge, more authority than the employee’s previous Job. A downward move occurs when an employee is given a reduced level of responsibility and authority. 13. Explain what Job withdrawal is, its three levels of progression and ow it relates to Job satisfaction.
Progression of withdrawal is a theory that dissatisfied individuals enact a set of behaviors in succession to avoid their work situation.
Three categories include: * behavior change * physical Job withdraw * psychological Job withdraw Withdrawal behaviors are related to one another, and they are all at least partially caused by Job dissatisfaction. 14. Describe the impact of coworkers and supervisors on employee satisfaction. For what three reasons might an employee be satisfied with his or her supervisor or coworker? A person may be satisfied with his or her upervisor and coworkers for one of two reasons: shared values, attitudes, beliefs, and philosophies, strong social support 15.
Describe the differences between internal equity comparisons and external equity comparisons, and explain their consequences on the organization.
Two types of employee social comparisons of pay are especially relevant in making pay-level and Job structure decisions. External equity pay comparisons focus on what employees in other organization are paid for doing the same Job. Benchmarking is a procedure by which an organization compares its own practices against those of the ompetition. Such comparisons are likely to influence external employee movement like the attraction s and retention of quality employees, increase or decrease labor cost and employee attitudes.
Internal equity pay comparisons focus on what employees within the same organization, but in different Jobs, are paid. Consequences of internal equity on the organization are promotions, transfers, Job rotation, cooperation among employees, and employee attitudes.
16. Why it useful for organizations to think in terms of designing a mix of programs rather than choosing one overall compensation program? Give examples. A combination of compensation programs will help balance individual, group, and organizational objectives. Potential consequences of compensation programs are performance Contingencies that may influence whether a pay program fits the situation are management style, and type of work.