Imagine that you are appointed as the manager of a reputed company. How will you plan the various activities in your organization? ——————- Answer # 1 Planning is a process which involves the determination of future course of action, that is why an action, what an action, how to take action and when to take action. Terry has defined planning in terms of future course of action. He says that: “Planning is the selection and relating of facts and making and using of assumptions regarding the future in the visualization and formalization of proposed activities elieved necessary to achieve desired result” Being a Manager of reputed company. I will take following steps to plan various activites: STEPS IN PLANNING It is not possible to prescribe a certain fixed process of planning for all organizations or for all types of plans. The major steps in planning are the following: 1. Perception of Opportunities. It is related with the awareness of the opportunities for deciding whether a programme should at all be carried on. Any organisational activity requires the help of environment that is social factor. . Establishing Objectives in fact, the first step in planning process is the determination of organisation objectives. These objectives set the pattern of the proposed course of action and the purpose of the future action is to arrive at these objectives. 3. Establishing Planning Premises. Premises are the various factors that affect planning. There are several factors which affect the organisational functioning. These are political factors, ethical standards, government controls, fiscal policy, price, demand and availability of various actors of production. The information is collected in respect of these. Their analysis leads to make certain forecasts and the liminations are determined within which proposed course of action is to be undertaken. 1. Determining Alternative Course of Action. An action can be performed in several ways. However, a particular way is the most suitable for the organisation keeping its limitations in view. The management should try to find out these alternatives. The various available alternatives should be examined in the light of planning premises which educe the number of alternatives which can be evaluated for selection. 5. Evaluating Alternative Courses. The various alternatives are evaluated in the light of objectives and premises. This process presents a difficult problem, because a particular alternative may be best from one point of view but not from other points. A number of methods in Operations Research have been developed to evaluate the various alternatives, which will be discussed later on in this part. 6. Selecting the Best Course. After evaluating the various lternatives, the most fit alternative is selected. Sometimes, the evaluation shows that more than one alternative is equally good. In such a case, a manager chooses several rather than one and combines them in action. 7. Formulating Derivating Plans: In the organization, variousactivites contribute to organizational objectives. After formulating the basic plan, various plans are derived for department, units, activities. In fact, there are invariable-derivative plants to be constructed to support the basic plan. 8. Establishing the Sequence of Activities.
After formulating basic and derivative plans, the sequence of various activities is determined. This helps in executing the plans and provides continuity in the operation. Making Planning Effective Following factors are important for making planning effective. 1. Establishing a Climate for Planning. this can be done by setting clear goals, establishing and publishing applicable significant planning premises, involving all managers in planning process, reviewing subordinate plans and their performance, and assuring appropriate staff assistance and nformation at all levels of management. 2. Inititative at Top Level. Planning to be effective must have the initiative and support of top level management. It is the top level which is responsible for success or failure of any organizational process, and planning is no exception. 3. Participation in Planning. Participation in planning affecting managers areas of authority at any level through their being informed, contibuting suggestions and being consulted, leads to good planning, commitment, loyalty and managerial effectiveness. 4. Communication of Planning elements.
If these are communicated clearly, adequately and timely, the managers are motivated and initiated to take planning process which may be necessary for them. When a manager understands the various aspects of planning, he is in a better position to foresee his future course of action and may develop a habit of planning every course of future action. 5. Integration of Long-term and Short-term Plans. Managers often focus their attention only on very short term plans, even if they plan. A Short term plan contributes towards the achievement of the long term plan. Thus, if a manager s planning for very short period, he must take into account his long term plans also. He must constantly watch and review that his short term plans contribute to his long term plans. 6. An Open Systems Approach. The problems of planning should be dealt through open systems approach. Open systems approach makes it necessary on the part of the managers that they take into account the environmental variables, such as, technological, social, cultural, legal, political and economic. So by taking above mentioned steps, various activities can be planned in organization.