International Business and Management

For a majority of foreigners, Saudi Arabia is a land of disparity and absurdities. It has super current cities, but its stringent Islamic sacred convictions as well as primeval communal customs, on which its laws and traditions depend, frequently clash with contemporary financial and technical realities. There are diverse Saudi business operations that are totally different from western business techniques. The majority of Saudis occasionally utilize autonomy in legal configuration and enforcement to alleviate these clashes and occasionally lodge different behaviours from strangers.

However, several foreigners misconstrue Saudi laws and customs or else find them divergent to their own value classification. Foreign companies have had mixed achievements in Saudi Arabia, owing on the larger part to how well they understood and tailored and understood imaginatively to Saudi customs. Substantiation evidence has depicted that women in Saudi are subject to a glass ceiling. For instance, in 2000, Saudi Arabia ratified an international agreement designed to eliminate the discrimination of women; however, its prescribed behaviours for women appear paradoxical to outsiders. On the one hand, women now outnumber men in Saudi Arabian universities and own about 20 percent of all Saudi businesses.

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There are separate male and female universities, and female-owned businesses can sell only to women. Women also comprise a large portion of Saudi teachers and doctors. On the other hand, women account for only about 7 percent of the workforce. They cannot have private law or architectural firms, nor can they be engineers. They are not permitted to drive, because this may lead to evil behavior.

They must wear abayas (robes) and cover their hair completely when in public. They cannot work alongside men except in the medical profession, and they cannot sell directly to male customers (p.87). If they are in employment where men work, women are supposed to have separate Work entrances as well as be separated from males by partitions. In addition, they must be attended by an adult male relation when trading with male clerks.

A lead principle change prepared by KLM Royal Dutch Airlines, with which the governmental culture reacted to countrywide cultural values as well as accepted practices, demonstrated the way these sets of variables can interrelate, and how collective culture can influence managerial culture. The culture of societal responsiveness in the Netherlands was integrated into business policy when the airline amended its travel-benefits procedure for families of workers. For quite some time, several KLM stewards had complained against the rule that only direct family members were qualified for low fares on KLM flights. They found it inequitable that even “just-married heterosexual spouses received te benefit, whereas long-term homosexual” (Understanding the Role of Culture, p.98) partners were not qualified. Upon modification, KLM responded that any couple, who officially registered as living together, would be eligible for the low fares.

By altering its policy, KLM placed the emphasis on unswerving relationships rather than on marital status or sexual predilection. Compared to societal culture, which is often widely held within a region or nation, organizational culture varies a great deal from one organization, company, institution, or group to another. Organizational culture represents those expectations, norms, and goals held in common by members of that group. For a business example, consider the oft-quoted comparison between IBM, considered traditionally to be very formal, hierarchical, and rules-bound, and with its employees usually in suits, and Apple Computer, whose organizational culture is very organic, or loose and informal, with its employees typically wearing casual clothes and interacting informally.From the monkey and fish story, we can deduce some lessons connected to international management. It was assumed that its frame of reference applied to the fish and acted accordingly. Thus, international managers from all countries must understand and adjust to unfamiliar social and commercial practices, especially the practices of that mysterious and unique nation, several individuals in the world appreciate and recount to others only in terms of their individual culture. This cataleptic orientation point of one’s own cultural values is referred to as a self reference criterion standards are a society’s facts about what is “good or bad, right or wrong, as well as what will determine how individuals will probably respond in assertiveness” (p.92).

Instances of data being blocked by Swedes, Italians and Spaniards in individual country wide goals protect individual’s privacy in any given circumstance. In a similar case, an American manager will would view such blocking of data as irrelevant. On the contrary, Americans do not necessarily respect privacy of data and it is an irrelevant value when business and profits are involved. In this perspective some individuals in a society are likely to be tough, belligerent, and aggressive versus humble and kind-hearted. Austria and Germany, for example, are highly assertive societies that value competition and have a “can-do” attitude. This compares with Sweden and Japan, less assertive societies, which tend to prefer warm and cooperative relations and harmony.

The GLOBE team concluded that those countries have sympathy for the weak and emphasize loyalty and solidarity (p.98). In addition, Future Orientation dimension relates to the echelon of significance as societies append to future-oriented behaviours such as investing and plaanning in the future. Switzerland and Singapore, high on this dimension, are inclined to save for the future and have a longer Time horizon for decisions. This perception contrasts with societies that tend to sketch more in the shorter period and lays more stress on instant satisfaction as well as performance orientation. This element measures the significance of presentation development and brilliance in culture and refers to whether or not individuals are optimistic to endeavour for continuous improvement.

Characteristically, this implies that people lean to take initiative and have a sagacity of necessity and the assurance to get things ready. States like Spain and Sweden as well as Italy has stumpy scores on this aspect; they cleave to other priorities in front of performance, such as custom, allegiance, background as well as family. They relate competition with trounce. The aspect of humane orientation measures the degree to which humanity supports and rewards individuals for being reasonable, philanthropic, liberal, compassionate, as well as kind. The premiers on this dimension are the Philippines and the Egyptians indicating a hub on consideration and sustenance for the weak.

An earlier research conducted by Hofstede resulted in a trail breaking structure for considering how basic values inspire organizational behaviour. This scaffold was developed by Hofstede, drawn from his research on over 116,000 individuals spread in over 50 countries. From his findings, Hofstede anticipated four assessment dimensions namely the “power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity” (Understanding the Role of Culture, p.99).We ought to be cautious when deducing these results, nevertheless, since his research findings are founded on a model drawn from one transnational firm, IBM.

Contrary to these findings, Hofstede did not account for within-country differences in multicultural countries. For instance, the Italians would explicitly articulate emotions even in a big business situation, while the Spaniards would deem such displays as being unethical; they, in turn would be considered as being hard to comprehend. Considering the Trompenaars’s dimension of particularism versus universalism, we discover that the universalistic advance applies both systems and rules independently, without contemplation for individual conditions, while the particularistic approach considers the first compulsion on dealings and is more prejudiced. As found out by Trompenaars, individuals in particularistic cultures are more liable to pass on insider information to an acquaintance than individuals in universalistic societies. Despite the fact that the Swedes collect data regarding to a customer’s background, they are stunned that this is carried out, particularly exclusive of governmental oversight.