Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a widespread mental disturbance. In conformity with different estimates, this ailment affects 1-3% of all humankind. This indicator may seem rather insignificant, but when imagining this figure on a global scale, it becomes more serious. That is why a case study for OCD should be conducted. The main manifestations are obsessive contemplations and actions.
Manifestations of the Disturbance
Obsessions are frightening, disturbing, painful contemplations, which cause expressed dismay. The patient considers such contemplations of his own, but, at the same time, perceives as something unpleasant, unnecessary or unbearable. At the same time, suffering from such contemplations, he cannot switch to something else by volitional effort.
Compulsions are obsessive stereotyped actions by which the patient temporarily reduces dismay and gets rid of obsessive contemplations. Such actions are quite complex, multi-component and acquire the nature of rituals. Distinctive features of rituals are the need for exact observance of all stages (if the patient misses some element of the ritual, he has to start all over again) and the tendency to complicate by adding new elements. Compulsions can be logically conjuncted with the previous obsessional thought or not have an adhesion with them. However, a case study of OCD should be made with careful examination all thought and actions even if it seems that they are not conjuncted with each other.
Main Causes of the Disturbance
Main reasons of the illness are not precisely clarified, and the primary task of any case study on OCD is to come closer to finding out the reason proceeding from a situation and a clinic picture of the concrete patient. There are theories in conformity with which the basis of the ailment is a violation of the processes of inhibition and excitation in the brain, hereditary predisposition, a lack of serotonin and even the effect of some infections. Most experts consider OCD a multifactorial ailment. They are of the opinion that the ailment develops under the influence of a number of external factors (stresses, features of character and upbringing) and internal (imbalance of neurotransmitters, genetic predisposition) factors. However, none of these theories is able to directly answer the main questions about the reasons of this illness.
The Case Study of OCD Patient
John Clinton, 26 years old, has been under the supervision of a psychiatrist for the past eight years. His illness proceeds chronically, with remissions alternating with exacerbations. Improvement can develop both in the background of therapy, and spontaneously, without prior treatment. In general, he retains the ability to work and lead a normal life. He has the following manifestations of the ailment:
He suffers from obsessive reasoning, which is different in content. As a rule, these are endless quasi-philosophical arguments on insignificant alternatives.
His behavior is characterized by Obsessive actions concerning continuous monitoring of the prevention of a potentially dangerous situation. In particular, the patient is concerned whether he did not forget to turn off the iron leaving the house and whether he switched on the alarm from thieves.
Since the disease has an easy form, the patient does not take special medicines, but regularly talks with a psychiatrist and reports on his condition.
The most effective method is the combination of behavioral and drug therapy. Patients are prescribed drugs, eliminating or reducing the symptoms of the ailment. However, the disappearance of the main signs is not yet a recovery. After stopping the medication, the symptoms quickly appear again. In order to achieve a lasting, sustained remission, it is necessary to work with fear and dismay, which cause manifestations of the ailment. For this purpose, specially developed, proven in practice methods of behavioral therapy are used.
The concepts of OCD became the object of close attention on the part of scientists over the past 15 years. The clinical and epidemiological significance of OCD has been completely revised. If it was previously thought that this is a rarely occurring condition observed in a small number of people, it is now known that OCD occurs frequently and gives a high incidence rate. This requires urgent attention of psychiatrists around the world. OCD case study examples should be developed by joint efforts in order to create the new techniques in treatment and controlling this illness.
At the same time, the concept of the etiology of OCD expanded: an indistinctly formulated psychoanalytic definition of the last two decades was replaced by a neurochemical paradigm that examines the neurotransmitter disturbances underlying OCD. Advances in cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and hypnosuggestive psychotherapy led to the development of a new approach in the treatment of OCD. This procedure is Exposure and Response Prevention / ERP. In combination with hypnosuggestive psychotherapy (hypnosis and suggestion), it makes it possible to achieve the greatest effectiveness in the shortest terms, unlike other psychotherapeutic methods. In conformity with the latest research data, this combination of therapeutic methods is the most effective in treating people diagnosed with this disturbance.