Policy Analysis

Those owners that could no longer afford to provide their pets a better living bandoned their dogs especially those that are not familiar with Spay and Neuter or reproducing) think that this is the only way they can get rid to a bigger number of pets. Some let their dogs roam freely in the community that resulted to a dog bites and are dumped into the streets intact. These intact animals will mate with other strays and it is common that they are fghting for each other and passers-by may be bitten.

Once get pregnant and give birth these resulted to a more unwanted dogs. Stray dogs frequently suffering from hunger and illness, seek food and shelter in human communities. They are often seen as a nuisance and health hazard by the people who live alongside them and even occupying the road that cause vehicular accidents.

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If dogs are not fed at home, they seek for their survival. They are seen eating out of the garbage that is thrown in the open by the people. Such scenes present a dirty look and cause inconvenience to the passers-by.

Passers-by could not walk by these garbage mounds due to foul smells and fear that these dogs could attack them. The garbage mounds are a breeding ground for germs of diseases in the community.

They are often tortured and abused by children and even adults. They are beaten with sticks, kicked or even have rocks thrown at them to drive them away. Many small or young dogs are forced by hunger to compete with the bigger street wise type of dog who gives no mercy regardless of size.

These kinds of small dogs get injured, resulted to open wounds which could easily get infected because nobody take care or treat them. It so sad to see a dog with a skin disease which has caused all the hair to fall out and skin goes pink. These dogs are constantly scratching and open up wounds on their skin as the itching is totally uncomfortable.

This scene is really an eyesore to all. Once infected, these dogs may not survive and their dead bodies could see in the streets and may cause diseases out of the decomposing body.

Those situations cited lead for the bigger problems with the stray dogs that should be address in the province of Camarines Norte. There are many rabies victims in the country in most especially in the Province of Camarines Norte, and the different municipalities therein. The Department of Agriculture, Department of Health, the Provincial and Municipal Agriculturist of the Local Government Units, are providing funds every year and spending millions of pesos for his purpose.

The Department of Health and Rural Health Units are very busy in treating rabies victims.

Some were cured by injecting anti-rabies vials while others who are culture sensitive used the alternative medicine “tambal” or any other traditional medicine. They only bring the dog-bitten patients to the doctors when it is too late, and this is the cause of death of some victims. And today if we will roam around the streets, plazas, parks, barangays, provincial roads and national roads, especially if we are driving a vehicle, we can see and encounter stray dogs roaming ithout a leash in the streets which are threat to citizens as they can bite victims and/or cause vehicular accident.

We, students of Theory and Practice of Public Administration studies this Republic Act 9482, An Act providing for the control and elimination of human and animal rabies, prescribing penalties for violation thereof and appropriations funds thereof; Republic Act 8485 – which is known as ANIMAL WELFARE ACT OF 1998 which is an act to promote animal welfare in the Philippines; And various ordinances of the province and its municipalities WHICH IS KNOWN AS

AN ORDINANCE PROVIDING AND REGULATING THE CATCHING AND IMPOUNDING OF APPROPRIATE PENALTIES THEREOF, to request the concerned agencies to revive the implementations of the above mentioned laws & ordinances.

LEGAL FRAMEWORK The legal framework for implementing rabies prevention and control program in the Philippines was already in several national regulations: Republic Act No. 485 known as the Animal Welfare Act was enacted in 1998; Philippine Republic Act No. 9482 was enacted on 25 May 2007 and was identified as the Anti-Rabies Act of 2007. The Philippine Republic Act was approved by the national government to be implemented t the LGUs. At the local level, the provincial Governor promulgated the Provincial Ordinance No. Strengthening the Camarines Norte Rabies Prevention and Eradication Program” that was approved on The local legislation defined the roles and responsibilities of the councils including: The organization of dog and dog owner registration; collection of registration fees; elimination of stray dogs (defined in the national law as any dog leaving its owner’s place or premise and that is no longer in the effective control of the owner); dog vaccination; surveillance of human and animal rabies and dog bite incidents; ettlement of disputes/agreements between bite victims and dog owners; and promotion of responsible dog ownership.

To ensure dissemination of information and understanding of the supporting legislation and to promote program advocacy throughout the entire province through the conduct of orientation and paralegal training sessions. The Problem The presence of stray dogs in the public ; private places and incidents of dog bites related cases and vehicular accidents attributed to stray dogs is a serious matter to be considered and looked upon because if not, this will lead to an increasing number f dog bites victims in the province of Camarines Norte. Table 1. 1 .


Actual Dog Bites Cases 2010 2011 2258 2012 3320 3353 Policy Alternatives: The following are the suggested policy alternatives that address the problem and might reduce the number of cases of Dog Bites Victims and Dog Accidents related in the province of Camarines Norte: 1. Program Management- At the provincial level, the revival Camarines Norte Rabies Prevention and Eradication Program (CNRPEP) which will be managed by the Camarines Norte Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (CNRPEC) under the Jurisdiction of the Governor.

Canine rabies prevention and elimination to be coordinated by the Provincial Veterinarian while human rabies prevention and elimination to be managed by the Provincial Health Officer. The CNRPEC will administered overall implementation, formulated proposals, measures and strategies that would ensure the implementation and sustainability of the CNRPEP. The CNRPEP is an intersectoral group which will be compose of the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government.

The program included: increasing local community nvolvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding can be secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO. This body also recommended the enactment of support legislation, policies and directives to strengthen the program and provided timely reports to program partners and the general public.

Parallel organizations to the CNRPEP will be created at the municipal and barangay villages) local government units (LGU) namely the Municipal Rabies Prevention and Elimination Council (MRPEC) and the Bantay Rabies sa Barangay (BRB) or the “Rabies Watchers”. The MRPEC assumed the same roles and functions at their areas of jurisdiction in accordance with the CNRPEP.

The BRB ensured implementation of the program at the community level, arranged mass vaccination campaigns in their areas and compiled a master list of dogs and dog owners. . Surveillance – The program involve the reporting of suspected canine rabies cases through the active participation of the BRBs, rural health centers and the ABTCs. We a part of daily life. Dogs were responsible for 98% of the human rabies cases.

Therefore, controlling the dog population and dog movement to achieve a feasible regular vaccination program and prevent the spread of rabies were both deemed necessary.

Although stipulated in the Anti-Rabies Act of 2007, that “LGIJ should enforce dog impounding activities and field control to eliminate stray dogs”, strong political will and sufficient financial resources required to comply with the law were lacking [7]. In order to generate more community support and overcome cultural arriers regarding responsible pet ownership, and to increased community advocacy about rabies as a disease, its public health importance, legal implications and how everyone in the community could help to eliminate the disease throughout the province.

In any large rabies control program high operational costs become significant challenges not only for the provincial government but also for each partner community. To help defray the cost of the program and improve community involvement, the CNRPEP will need an enlisted volunteers throughout the province.

Volunteers are well-known and respected by their neighbors, have a thorough nowledge of the local settings, particularly in remote areas, and will be motivated to serve their own communities. Through volunteerism, the number of people involved in implementing the rabies control program will increased.

For planning and evaluation of control and vaccination activities and acceptable methods, accurate information on dog population density and dog-human relationships was extremely valuable. Data will be collected by the relatively simple field methods employed in this project sufficed for planning cost-effective dog rabies control campaigns throughout the province. Dog population and ecology data will be collected and will also be useful in planned epidemiological analyses of canine rabies in Camarines Norte.


Communication Management – All communications regarding the CNRPEP will be managed in a coordinated manner to ensure integration of all components of the program as it progressed through the development, initiation, implementation, maintenance and sustainability phases. It was deemed critically important from the beginning of the BRPEP to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and support among stakeholders including the citizens living on Bohol, medical professionals, volunteers nd paid employees implementing the program as well as government officials and funding agencies.

Information was therefore delivered to the beneficiaries at the grass roots level as well as to government agencies overseeing the project and funding agencies supporting the project. The Provincial as well as the Municipal/City Rabies Task Forces designated key spokespersons authorized to dispense information and answer questions relevant to their areas of Jurisdiction.

As part of the communications strategy, a CNRPEP will develop, publish and distribute to every municipal rabies council to serve as a reference for all field units orking within the program [8].

The handbook will be design to provide a logical web controlling rabies within the province. Moreover this document provided clear and distinct roles and responsibilities at various management levels from the national level down to the barangays and individual households. It also included vital information regarding the disease and its epidemiology.

It outlined the goals and objectives of the BRPEP, strategies of implementation, program management, and information on legislation and issuances as well as contact phone numbers in case of questions about the program. Additionally, the BRPEP handbook included an example of an annual operational plan including the report forms and the monitoring format. A Barangay Handbook with simplified standard operating procedures written in the local dialect will also be distributed to each BRBs.


Information and Educational Campaign (‘EC) – A two-pronged social mobilization plan, including a ‘Community-focused program’ and a ‘School-based education program’, was launched as a first step to increase awareness and enhance community participation and support. Components of the ‘EC included discussions n rabies as a disease, its epidemiology, and its prevention and control, the Bohol Program in general and related national and municipal rabies ordinances as they supported the program implementation and responsible pet ownership.

The community program concentrated on campaigns using tri-media (television, radio, and newspapers), display of posters and banners in strategic areas, distribution of flyers and other materials, public hearings of local ordinances and hosting of municipal and barangay symposia, meetings and seminars. Educational campaigns were also conducted at various government offices and in churches.

Philippine National Rabies Awareness Month in March, and World Rabies Day, held annually on September 28 were both observed to remind people of the continual threat of rabies and the importance of the program to eliminate rabies on Bohol.

The School-based educational program, approximately 25% of all reported human deaths reported are children less than 15 years of age and this will designed to improve students’ awareness about rabies prevention, and will be developed and implemented in close supervision with the Department of Education and in coordination with the Department of Health and other member agencies of the BRPEC.

Other educational activities for the children will be included such as: Incorporation of rabies modules into various subjects in the public elementary school curriculum; creation of “Rabies Scouters” (boy and girl scouts who have successfully completed a rabies and responsible pet ownership training program); creation of a campaign slogan to encourage responsible pet ownership; conducting fun educational events to celebrate the bond between children and pets. And other forms of campaigns promoting responsible pet ownership were also adopted in the city/municipalities will also be adopted. d location of dogs throughout Camarines Norte, the BRB will conduct a house-to- house inquiry using a master list of households.

The collected data reflected dog owner’s name, number of dogs owned, whether they were confined, leashed or free- roaming, sex of each dog and total number of households. Dog population data was updated annually. To further regulate the possession of dogs, establish dog ownership, and facilitate the traceability of dogs involved in bite cases, the mandatory registration of dogs, with a corresponding fee collection, was implemented at the barangay level in accordance with the Provincial Ordinance.

Dogs from households that were not able to afford the fees were also registered and the dog owners were given a promissory note and allowed a staggered payment. The collected registration fees were shared in a manner specified in the Provincial Ordinance as follows: 50% was retained in the barangay and 50% divided between the municipal and provincial treasury to support the sustainability of the entire rabies control program. There will be a synchronized rabies vaccination monthly.

Vaccination teams will be organized at the provincial and municipal levels. Provincial teams will be assigned to versee the vaccination activities and to ensure the presence and usage of cold chain equipment in every municipality. The Municipal Agricultural Officers (MAO) led the municipal vaccination teams composed of livestock technicians, Barangay Livestock Aides and other personnel duly designated by the CNRPEC trained as dog vaccinators. Vaccination activities will be supervised by the provincial and district veterinarians.

The majority of the members of the vaccination team, (including those who administered the vaccine, or assisted in handling and tagging animals), received pre-exposure rabies vaccination.

Team members who will handled registration and collection of fees, or prepared reports did not come in contact with animals, and were not given pre-exposure rabies vaccination. All team members were briefed on proper rabies vaccination activities, provided vaccination supplies and paraphernalia, registration/health certificates and dog tags, recording forms and education campaign materials.

Mop-up dog vaccination campaigns targeting low coverage areas were conducted within six months following the initial mass vaccination campaign. Dogs not vaccinated during the scheduled synchronized mass rabies vaccination campaigns ere accommodated upon special arrangement with the municipal vaccination teams. A uniform dog tag, indicating vaccination, was securely fastened on a dog collar with the help of the assistant dog vaccinator. The tag was valid for one year from the date of vaccination and was replaced annually upon renewal of registration at which time a booster rabies vaccination was administered.

Standardized dog vaccination report forms were consolidated and submitted to the BRB, the MAO and the BRPEP. The community was also encouraged to bring their cats for vaccination during the mass vaccination campaign. 1 . Dog Population Management and Movement Control – Dog population and movement control will be implemented as part of the CNRPEP and in compliance with the PNRA and the Animal Welfare Act. The dog population will be managed by selective elimination of captured stray dogs, impounded dogs unclaimed within 3 days, and unmanageable dogs voluntarily submitted by owners.

Municipal rabies ordinances in the Philippines include a section on dog population management and designated a task force to perform this function.

At the barangay level, socially acceptable procedures were discussed and widely disseminated hroughout the community. Euthanasia procedures were initially conducted in accordance with Administrative Order No. 21 of the Department of Agriculture on the Code of Conduct in the Euthanasia for Pets/Companion Animals. The CNRPEP will purchase of a mobile veterinary clinic which will be used to improve neutering, spaying, and euthanasia procedures.

Additionally, partnerships with animal welfare organizations will be coordinated to improve dog population management practices to comply with recommended international standards. 2.

Monitoring and Evaluation – For planning purposes, estimating dog vaccination overage, and evaluating the outcome of the project, a household survey was conducted to collect data on the owned dog population, knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP), and data regarding the dog-human relationship.

The survey was designed using questionnaires and cluster sampling procedures and collected data among barangay households and will be consolidated in the municipal levels and submitted to the province for compilation. 3. Sustainability was ensured through the CNRPEP activities on advocacy, general public awareness, child education, legislation, dog registration with fees, 100% of hich was re-invested back into the CNRPEP to establish a self-sustaining funding stream for the program.

Sustainability was strategically built into the program through an integrated program interface with LGIJ officials, community leaders and other stakeholders to ensure community participation; establishment of a rabies diagnostic laboratory on the island for increasing further disease surveillance; creation of volunteer quarantine aides in coastal barangays to continually monitor the entry of new dogs from other provinces; and provision of annual award system to motivate excellence in program execution.

Program sustainability is a critically important issue for all public health programs, but especially for resource-poor countries with limited budgets and many problems to resolve. Thus, a successful rabies prevention and control program must be built several public health components and by developing a strategic plan that would involve all of the stakeholders required and would ultimately be sustainable once rabies was eliminated. 4.

Increased penalties for violators- based on our evaluations, the very reason why many pet owners violates this law is because of low amount of penalties and sanction o be meted. If possible, the penalties be tripled and with an imprisonment penalty for violators.

5. Results/Outcome – is the Reduction in Incidence of Human and Animal Rabies Deaths and also the reduction of dog bites incidents in the province of Camarines Table 2. 1 . Target Results within a 4 year periods with a target decrease of at least annually.

If this forecast will be attain more or less an amount of more or less millions of pesos er year will be save and it can be used by the government in other priority programs.

The identification of the recommended policy alternatives was based upon the analysis of the policy alternatives against five main criteria: Efficiency, Equity, Administration, political and legal feasibility and improvability.

The analysis is summarized in the table below. It is once again important to stress that the analysis is based upon the views of the concerned officials if the provincial government. The screening of policy alternatives is based upon the criteria for policy alternative analysis as shown below: Evaluative Criteria Efficient (Benefit to Cost Ratio) The efficiency of the proposed policy measures the extent to which a policy maximizes the net benefits of the all individuals and the society, including the government, pet owners and the society.

More simply stated, the efficiency criterion assesses the extent to which the alternative achieves the policy objective relative to the cost of implementation as compared to other potential options.

Alternatives that rate higher on measures of efficiency would be deemed more cost-effective than other competing alternatives. Equity (Fairness) The issue of equity focuses on the differential effects of the policy on key economic factors in the community including the government, the pet owners and the society.

The equity issue specifically focuses on whether these key players will be treated fairly relative to their situation prior to the policy implementation and/or relative to other participants in the society. The equity issue generally involves a value judgment about how individual pet owners fare as the result of a policys implementation. Practical Area Administrative criteria focus on the relative ease of implementation and cost ssociated with administering a program or policy.

Policies that rate highly in satisfying evaluative criteria, for example, may be cost-prohibitive to implement or may not be realistic in terms of the administrative cost would be more practically feasible than those requiring major organizational restructuring or high levels of spending. Political and Legal Feasibility A major practical concern involving the future promise of a given policy is the extent to which the policy receives political support from the key-decision makers. Even policies with clearly demonstrated benefits might fail to be adopted in the face of