Religion in Europe
Little is identified concerning the Neolithic Europe prehistoric religion. Iron and Bronze Age faith in Europe just like elsewhere was largely polytheistic (Ancient Roman religion, Ancient Greek religion, Finnish paganism, Germanic paganism, Celtic polytheism, etc.). The Roman Kingdom officially assumed Christianity in the AD 380. In the Early Middle Ages, majority of Europe experienced Christianization, a process fundamentally comprehensive with the Scandinavia Christianization in High Middle Ages (Luther, 1756). The outcome of the idea of “Western World” or “Europe” is intimately associated with the notion of “Christendom”, particularly because Christianity was marginalized in the Middle East by the growth of Islam from 8th century, an arrangement that steered to the Crusades that though ineffective militarily were an essential step in the appearance of a religious uniqueness of Europe.
In many times, traditions of conventional religion existed highly independent from official dogmatic theology or denomination. The faith was Catholic in Spain, France, Greece and Portugal. In England and Netherlands it was mainly Protestant. By then, Germany was not a uniform nation, but various states, some of them were Catholic while others were Lutheran (Protestant). This led to war and tensions. The Catholic motivated kings of England who observed France for encouragement after the Charles I had been slewed, his son, who become the future Charles II procured refuge in the France.
When James II rose to power as a Catholic there existed tensions among Parliament, and him that led to his ultimate rebellion and the incitements to the Protestant with his wife Mary in order to become combined monarchs. France started to take a firmer line alongside Protestants in the century where Louis XIV repealed the Edict of Nantes that allowed religious allowances. In general, in this century Europe was not renowned for toleration wherever with continuous conflict among Catholic and Protestant (Luther, 1756). In Europe, religion played a great role in public life as it was challenged by the illumination in the twilight of 17th and 18th centuries. The growth of secularism that meant social rules could no longer be focused on religious philosophies. As reason dared the power of religions, public life and state institutions were highly secularized, and a current establishment for government and the law was required.
Ideology occupied this space and several of the hoariest ideologies created at the time. Conservatism impacted the least fundamental of these. It endorsed maintaining customary social institutions, comprising religion, and requested for little political modifications from the order (Kant, 1784). Liberalism was a bit radical and concentrated individual freedom and rights from the nation. The current nation-state; a sovereign nation having a ruling government homogeneous population came into the living in Europe in 18th and 19th centuries the time multi-ethnic entities broke up and individual having a common culture and language formed states (Kant, 1784). German started uniting in at the end of the 18th century which was an encouragement of the procession.
The European countries required answers to fundamental questions concerning how to operate and arrange their governments. For instance, the makeup and organization of executive compared to the legislature were major issues. Additionally, established countries such as Britain faced institutional difficulties. These political developing pains happened during a time of prompt economic and social change. Dissatisfaction with political schedules grew as the Industrial Revolution generated the growth and urbanization of a more composite class system.
In this case, the created middle class demanded a superior voice, as well as the power of the customary aristocracy was importantly reduced (Kant, 1784). The United Kingdom’s Parliamentary Reform Act of 1832 is a latter example of this progression at work. This act eliminated the hereditary House of Lords’ regulation over the appointments for the House of Commons.