Report on case study understanding development mircle
Report on case study understanding development miracle: china ay hierarchical argil Case Study Analysis of National Strategies for Sustainable Development Irish document is one of 19 country case studies that form the knowledge base for a synthesis report entitled “National Strategies for Sustainable Development: Challenges, Approaches, and Innovations Based on a 19-country Analysis. ” The synthesis report and country case studies are available electronically at: http://www. Kids. Org/ measure/capacity/sides. Asp http://www.
Get. De/ripples/download nun 2004 Notice to Reader
Information in the country case studies was obtained primarily from publicly available sources (e. G. , Internet and literature sources) and, where possible, was supplemented through interviews with government officials. The information was up- to-date as of May 2004.
Every effort was made to ensure that official national sustainable development focal point contacts had the opportunity to provide feedback on the research, but such contacts were not successful in all cases. This case study is in an unedited, working paper format.
These case studies are made publicly available to add to the national sustainable placement strategy knowledge base. The project’s research partners accept responsibility for any inaccuracies or omissions. The views expressed in this working paper do not necessarily represent the views of the funding partners.
The research partners welcome your comments on this country case study. Please e-mail comments to Darrel Swanson at [email protected] Ca. Irish National Sustainable Development Strategy research project is a collaborative effort.
Its research partners are the International Institute for Sustainable Development (“SD), the Canadian consulting firm Stratus Inc.
And the Environmental Policy Research Centre of the Free University Berlin (FIJI). The study has been funded by Deutsche Shillelagh’s for Technical Commentaries (GET; commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development – BMW), the Canadian International Development Agency (CICADA), Department of Foreign Affairs Canada, and Environment Canada.
Advisors to the project include II-JAN – The World Conservation Union and the UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Prepared by: Stratus Inc. Strategies to Sustainability 404- 1 Nicolas S Ottawa, Canada KIN 787 reel.
613 241-1001 Fax: 613 241-4758 MN. W. Stratus-SST. Com Brazil Case Study Unedited Working Paper Introduction: Brazil Description argil is the fifth-largest country in the world, located in eastern South America, with population of approximately 170 million people (CICADA 2001). “Brazil is a country of contrasts.
It contains not only two of the largest cities in the southern hemisphere – SAA Paulo and ROI De Jeanine, but also the majority of the Amazon and Panatela, the largest remaining tropical forest in the world and one of the world’s largest and most spectacular wetland systems, respectively. These contrasts are also evident in Brazier’s social realities. Despite extensive natural resource reserves, many Brazilian suffer under poverty, inequality and other social ills” (Wilson Centre 2003). Economy argil is the ninth-largest economy in the world (CICADA 2001).
It exploits its vast resources and large labor pool to create this strong economic position (CIA 2003). However, it faces many economic challenges. Brazil continues to battle against inflation, an economic response to several developments arising from the efforts to service Brazier’s large account deficits (CIA 2003). Brazil also has extreme inequalities particularly with respect to income distribution. Only 10% of the population has control over 50% of the income, whereas 50% of the population is limited to 8% of the income (MA 2002, Chi.
3, p. 14).
Brazier’s per capita income, which places it between the richest and poorest countries of the world, hides the fact that many Brazilian are among the world’s poorest while a few are among the richest (Hosteller 1999, p. 59). The GAP per capita in 2002 was US$7,600 (CIA 2003). The GAP estimated at $1.
376 trillion (purchasing power parity). Its annual growth rate averaged 2. 5% between 1990 and 1999 (World Energy Council 2001). Agriculture, cattle-raising, forestry and the manufacturing industry are the main engines of Brazier’s economy ACID 2001).
The labor force by occupation is 53% services, 24% industry, and 23% agriculture (CIA 2003).
Unemployment was 6. 4% 2001 (CIA 2003). Society argil returned to civilian rule in 1985 after two decades of military rule. Brazil is a federative republic. There are three levels of government: federal, state and municipal.
The President is both the Chief of State and the head of the government. He National Congress consists of the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies 1513 seats elected by proportional representation for four year terms).
There are a total of 26 states and 1 federal district. argil takes many social challenges, to which the most significant are the inequities in the distribution of income, low educational attainments, poor health, and limits to the decision-making participation of its citizens (CICADA 2001). Portuguese is Brazier’s official language. Brazier’s human development index is 0.
777, and is ranked 65th out of 175 countries in 2001 (Undead 2003, p. 238). Brazil ranked 18th in the human poverty index of 2001 with a rating of 1 1. (Undid 2003, p. 245).
Approximately 50 million razzing’s live below the poverty line, which is defined as IIS$I per a day (1993 APP US$) (Wilson centre 2003). The life expectancy at birth 67. 8 (Undead 2003, p. 238). Environment Ninth a surface area of approximately 8.
5 million sq km, Brazier’s terrain is dominated by the Amazon Basin and central highlands, but there are also desert areas, hills and rolling plains. Brazier’s climate is mostly tropical, but temperate in the south.
The country is susceptible to extreme weather events such as droughts and floods (CICADA 001). Brazil has an environmental sustainability index of 59. 6 (ranked 20th out of 142) (Yale & Columbia 2002, p.
3). CO emissions per capita were 1. 9 tones in 2001 world sank 2001, p. 204). Ninth regards to biodiversity, the Amazon alone holds the largest biodiversity in the Nor and accounts for 40% of the Brazilian territory.
To date, 55,000 species of plants, 428 of mammals, 1 ,622 of birds, 467 of reptiles and 516 types of amphibians have already been identified.
Many species are still unknown and will need to be Identified. Brazil has a wide variety of environmental legislative instruments. The 1988 Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil devotes a full section (Chapter v”, article 225) to the environment, and includes conservation areas. Brazier’s main environmental problems are deforestation (particularly of the Amazon and the Atlantic forest), air pollution, waste and sewage disposal, and water and coastline Issues (Hosteller 1999, p.
For instance, Brazier’s frontier forests comprise 17% of the world’s remaining frontiers, making it the third highest ranked country in terms of remaining frontier forest. Since 1995, Brazil has averaged an annual loss of 7,smoke/year in Amazonian forest cover (Global Forest Watch). With regards to sanitation, of the 113 million people who live in urban Brazil (in 1995), 75 million have no sewage treatment, 20 million do not have running water and 60 million do not have their trash collected (Hosteller 1999, p. 73).
To overcome these environmental problems will require years of diligent and consistent work, and cannot be expected n the short term.
Brazier’s efforts to mitigate environmental problems are hindered by variety of reasons, but one of the most substantial problems, as demonstrated in his report, is the national focus and priority on economic stabilization policies at the cost of other priorities such as environmental initiatives. Note to Readers Research sources tort this report are primarily Brazil government reports, as well as some additional input from Nags, Engross, and academia. Racal’s Profile by Selected Indicators Indicator Human Development Index (and ranking) – 2001 Human Poverty Index (and ranking) – 2001 Environmental Sustainability Index (and ranking) – 2002 EGG a-notations -2001 SAD and GAP per capita – 2002 Value 1777 (65th) (18th) 59. 6 (20th) 1. 9 tones per capita of CO US$I . 376 trillion and US$7,600 Content of the National Sustainable Development Strategy rhea Brazilian Agenda 21 was signed in July 2002 by the Brazilian president, Fernando Henries Cards, in preparation for the World Summit on Sustainable Development.
This comprehensive strategy is not classified as an official government document. Rather, it was created through years of extensive consultation across all sectors of society, and is consequently classified as a “social pact” (MA 2002, Chi. 7, p. 1). The extent to which the government is bound by this pact is unclear.
Strategy Content he Brazilian Agenda 21 provides an overview of the development process of this strategy, acknowledging the challenges, lessons learned and actors involved.
The Agenda expands upon the concept of sustainable development, and how Brazier’s situation fits into the international context. The bulk of the Agenda outlines 21 objectives (see Appendix A), including actions and recommendations. The objectives are organized under the following five priority areas: rhea economy of savings in the society of knowledge Social inclusion for a solidarity society Strategy for the urban and rural sustainability
Strategic natural resources: water, biodiversity and forests Exportability and ethics for the promotion of sustainability The final components of the Agenda include a discussion on implementation mechanisms and instruments, accompanied by an overview to accomplishments already undertaken in this country. Coordination and Linkages with Other Strategies or Planning Processes Under the razzing Constitution, the government’s multi-year plan (Platinum Plan PA) must be prepared every four years and approved by the National Congress.
The PA includes the programs that are to receive funding.
In 1999, when the 2000-2003 PA Nas prepared, it incorporated information on consultations undertaken and documents written to date which pertained to the basic themes of the Brazilian Agenda 21 . It was hoped that by incorporating these themes at the national planning level they would, in turn, eventually be incorporated into public policies (MA 2001 , p. 2). The latest PA, for 2004-2007, created under President Lull resulted in a major budget cut for the environmental sector. However, “the great innovation of the new PA is the insertion of the environmental dimension on the National Development
As published by Agencies Folia, the new government wants to integrate environmental questions with Brazier’s development policy. The other four dimensions of the Plan are: social, economic, regional and democratic” COCA 2003, p. 5). Brazil is also actively involved with other Latin American countries on a variety of sustainable development initiatives, such as the Latin American and Caribbean Initiative (LILAC), and the “Presidential Statement regarding the World Summit on Sustainable Development”, which was Jointly presented in July of 2002 by the Presidents of South America.
This statement reiterated these countries’ commitment to implementing Agenda 21, and their confidence in the WOWS (Andean Community).
President Lull is also demonstrating commitment to Latin American relations in an effort to ensure that South American countries can gain a respectable and competitive position in a globalizes world COCA 2003, p. 2). Ninth regards to poverty, although there appears to be nation-wide consensus as to the need to combat poverty and social inequalities, as of March 2000 Brazil did not have an explicit National Poverty Reduction Strategy.
The nearest substitute is the Communicated Solidarity Program, which consists of two components: a federal agency Inch is used primarily in compensatory policies, such as the distribution of free food to very poor communities affected by adverse shocks; and a set of ‘partnerships’ between the government, civil-society associations and private sector companies Inch mobiles and/or supports interesting poverty reduction programs (Cameras & Ferreira 2000, p. 17).
Integration of Sustainable Development Principles Although the Brazilian Agenda 21 is not named as a national sustainable development strategy per SE, the Agenda notes that “the common objective to be achieved is not restricted to the preservation of the environment alone, but to a progressive and expanded sustainable development, which brings into discussion the search tort balance between economic growth, social equity and environmental preservation” (MA 2002, Forward, p. 2).