Separation of Mixtures Lab Report

I Experiment 2 Separation Of Mixtures INTRODUCTION A mixture can simply be defined as a substance that is made up or consists of two or more elements and/or compounds that are physically combined but that have not reacted chemically to form new substances. A mixture may be a solid, liquid, gas, or some combination of those states. Mixtures can be found almost every wher in our everyday lifes and some common examples are * sand and water * salt and water * sugar and salt * Due to the fact that mixture are not chemically combined, They can easily be separated into component substances by using physical means.

Chemists have devised numerous methods for separating mixtures based on there differential physical characteristics Below are a couple of separation techniques: 1.

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Sublimation. This involves heating a solid until it passes directly from the solid phase into the gaseous phase. The reverse process, when the vapor goes back to the solid phase is called deposition. 2. Extraction. This uses a solvent to selectively dissolve one component of the solid mixture.

With this technique, a soluble solid can be separated from an insoluble solid. 3. Decantation.

This separates a liquid from an insoluble solid by carefully pouring the liquid from the solid without disturbing the solid. 4. Filtration.

This separates a solid from a liquid through the use of a porous material as a filter. Paper is a good filter. Filters allow the liquid to, pass through but not the solid. 5. Evaporation.

This is the process of heating a mixture in order to drive off a volatile liquid and make the remaining component dry Materials: beakers Bunsen burner and tubing chemical scoop electronic balance evaporating dish filter paper funnel gloves (disposable) goggles graduated cylinder pipets ing stand and ring sparker stirring rod test tubes tongs wash bottle watch glass water wire gauze weigh boats wire mesh w/ ceramic center Procedure and Results: In this experiment the only 3 separation techniques that were used were: Evaporation To determine the mass percent of sodium chloride in a saturated sodium chloride solution. Firsst of all 200ml of water was put on a wire gauze above a benson burner then suspendend above an evaporationg dih in a 400ml beaker. 5he water was the boiled till the evapourting dish appeared dry this ntook about 20 minutes Filtration Collection of calcium carbonate

Firstly sodium carbonate solution was added to a beaker. And then calcium chloride in another. we then Poured the calcium chloride solution into the beaker containing the sodium carbonate solution. Record your observations ,we then waited for the solid to settle, and found the mass of a piece of filter paper.

Record the mass in your data table. Next we Set up a funnel, filter paper, and beaker. Wet the filter paper with a small amount of distilled water. Then Pour ed the contents of the beaker slowly into the funnel. carefully, so none of the solid flows out of the filter paper or funnel.

Once all of the solid is on the filter paper and the liquid has all drained through into the beaker, carefully remove the filter paper from the funnel and set into a 150 mL beaker that is labeled with your name and period.

The final mass was gotten after the product mass allowed to dry overnight. Recrystallization Purification of vanillin Weigh 2. 9 g of vanillin and place in a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. Then Add 60 mL of water and swirl vigorously benson burner was then used to Heat/boil the solution and then it was stirred. ext it was removed from the burner then the flask was put in an ice bath and stir occasionally.

next we Place a properly fitted piece of filter paper in your Buchner funnel. and made sure all the holes are covered. the paper was then wet with water. Vacuum filter your vanillin crystals. Rinse the Erlenmeyer flask a few times with 5 mL of cold water, and use this to wash the crystals in the funnel.

We then Emptied the crystals onto a weighed piece of filter paper and placed them in on the cabinets drawer for drying. To be weighed the next lab class