The process of receiving and representing stimulus energies by the nervous system is called a. Priming. B.

Kinesthesia. C. Accommodation. D. Sensation.

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E. Perception. 2. The process by which we select, organize, and interpret sensory information in order to recognize meaningful objects and events is called a. Sensory adaptation.

B. Parallel processing. C. Sensation. D.

Perception. E. Accommodation. 3.

Trying to see a hidden representational image in a piece of abstract art by cooking carefully at each element in the picture and trying to form an image employs which kind of perceptual process? A. Selective attention b.

Interposition c. Perceptual adaptation d. Bottom-up processing e. Retinal disparity 4. Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the a.

Optic nerve. B. Sensory receptors. C. Cerebral cortex.

D. Feature detectors. E. Occipital lobe. 5.

You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates a. Subliminal perception. . Change blindness. C.

Fovea. D. Selective attention. E. The visual cliff.

6. Standing in the checkout line at the grocery store, Jerry kept looking at his watch to see the time. As a result, he failed to see that a store employee was being robbed by a person Just in front of him. Jerry most clearly suffered a. Place theory. B.

Intentional blindness. C. Sensory interaction. D. Blind spot.

E. Feature detectors. 7. An one experiment, most of the participants who viewed a videotape of men tossing a basketball remained unaware of an umbrella-toting woman sauntering across the screen.

This illustrated a. Opponent-process theory.

C. Blind spot. D. Visual cliff. E. Figure-ground.

8. The pop-out phenomenon illustrates that some stimuli almost inevitably trigger a. Sensory adaptation. B. Transduction. C.

Selective inattention. D. Priming. E. Difference threshold. 9.

Although Manuel was sitting right next to his parents, he smelled a skunk minutes before they did. Apparently, Manuel has a lower his parents have. A. Accommodation level b. Absolute threshold c.

Tolerance level d. Olfactory saturation level e. Adaptation level 10. If an adult develops cataracts, his or her a. Absolute threshold for light is likely to increase.

B. Difference threshold for light is likely to decrease. C. Absolute threshold for light is likely to decrease. For skunk odor than d.

Difference threshold for light is likely to remain unchanged. E. Absolute threshold for light is likely to remain the same. 1 1 . During a hearing test, many sounds were presented at such a low level of intensity that Mr..

Natal could hardly detect them. These sounds were below Mr.. Netball’s a. Subliminal threshold.

B. Absolute threshold. C. Adaptation threshold. D.

Difference threshold. E. Auditory threshold. 12.

Standing atop a mountain on an utterly dark, clear night, most of us would see a candle flame atop another mountain 30 miles away.

This best illustrates a. Priming. C. The absolute threshold. D.

A Just noticeable difference. E. Place theory. 13. The fact that fear may increase your sensitivity to an almost imperceptible pain stimulus is of most relevance to a.

Place theory. B. Frequency theory. C. The Young-Hellholes theory. D.

Opponent-process theory. E. Signal detection theory. 14. Photographs of people were rated more positively if the photos immediately followed a briefly flashed image of kittens.

This best illustrates the impact of a. Ensure adaptation. B. Interposition. C. Retinal disparity.

E. Propagandist. 15. When informed that a brief imperceptible message would be flashed repeatedly during a popular TV program, many viewers reported feeling strangely hungry or thirsty during the show. Since the imperceptible message had nothing to do with hunger or thirst, viewers’ strange reactions best illustrate a. The McGuire effect.

B. Sensory adaptation. C. The volley principle. D. A placebo effect.

16. If the Just-noticeable difference for a 10-ounce weight is 1 ounce, the Just noticeable difference for an 80-ounce weight would be e. 10 ounce(s). . 1 17.

Gigolo’s bag of marbles is twice as heavy as Jims. If it takes 5 extra marbles to make Jims bag feel heavier, it will take 10 extra marbles to make Gigolo’s bag feel heavier. This best illustrates a. The opponent-process theory. B. Accommodation.

C. The McGuire effect. D. Sensory adaptation. E. Weeper’s law.

18. Weeper’s law is relevant to an understanding of a. Absolute thresholds. B. Difference thresholds. C.

Sensory adaptation. D. Sensory interaction. E. Parallel processing.

19. The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion for their difference to be perceived is known as a. He opponent-process theory. B. Weeper’s law.

. Feature detection. E. The difference threshold. 20.

Diminished sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus is known as a. Accommodation. B. Blindsiding. D.

Transduction. E. Equilibrium. 21 . After listening to your high-volume car stereo for 1 5 minutes, you fail to realize how loudly the music is blasting. This best illustrates a.

Weeper’s law. D. The volley principle. E. Transduction.

22. Light-wave amplitude determines the a. Intensity of colors. B. Color hue we experience. C.

Firing of rods in the retina. D. Curvature and thickness of the lens. E. Really processing of a scene. 23.

The adjustable opening in the center of the eye is the a. Fovea. B. Iris. C. Cornea.

D. Pupil. E. Blind spot. 24.

Bipolar cells are located in the a. Optic nerve. B. Retina. D. Lens.

E. Cochlea. 25. The axons of ganglion cells converge to form a. The basilar membrane.

B. Bipolar cells. C. The auditory nerve. D. The optic nerve.

E. The olfactory epithelium. 26. Under very dim levels of illumination a. The iris expands to allow more light to reach the retina. B.

Rods are more light- sensitive than cones. C. Eaves react to increase the sensitivity of the optic nerve. D. Torture detectors in the retina activate.

. Rods fire according to place theory to perceive the available light. 27. Watch receptor cells most directly enable us to distinguish different wavelengths of light? A. Rods b. Cones c.

Bipolar cells d. Feature detectors e. Optic nerves 28. Rods are a. More light-sensitive and more color-sensitive than are cones.

B. Less light-sensitive and less color-sensitive than are cones. C. More light-sensitive and less color- sensitive than are cones. D.

Less light-sensitive and more color-sensitive than are cones. E. More frequency sensitive and less amplitude sensitive. 9. Visual information is processed by a.

Torture detectors before it is processed by rods and cones. B. Ganglion cells before it is processed by feature detectors. C. Bipolar cells before it is processed by rods and cones.

D. Feature detectors before it is processed by bipolar cells. E. The optic nerve before it is processed by ganglion cells. 30. The feature detectors identified by Hubble and Weasel respond to specific aspects of stimulation.

A. Vestibular b. Visual c. Auditory d. Olfactory e. Kinesthesia 31 .

Which of the following types of cells are located in the brain’s occipital lobe? . Rods and cones b. Bipolar cells c. Hair cells e. Cochlea cells 2.

When looking at the hands of a clock showing 8 o’clock, certain brain cells in the visual cortex are more responsive than when the hands show 10 o’clock. This is most indicative of a. Sensory interaction. B. Feature detection. C.

Parallel processing. D. Perceptual adaptation. 33. Feature detectors pass information to other cortical areas where complex patterns are processed by a. Bipolar cells.

B. Suppliers clusters. C. The optic nerve. D.

Opponent-process cells. E. Cochlear implants. 34.

The ability to simultaneously recognize the color, shape, size, and speed of an oncoming automobile best illustrates a.

Ensure interaction. B. Kinesthesia. D. Subliminal perception. E.

Blindsiding. 35. The ability to simultaneously process the pitch, loudness, melody, and meaning of a song best illustrates a. Subliminal perception. 36.

Researchers found that if they temporarily disrupted one region of the visual cortex with magnetic pulses, people were unable to recognize faces but could still recognize houses. This suggests that a. Visual information is processed by opponent cells in the retina. B. He fovea is the retina’s area of central focus. C.

Information presented in the right visual field is processed in the left hemisphere f the brain. D. Two separate brain regions process information about faces and objects. E. The physical characteristics of light determine our sensory experience of them. 37.

Certain stroke victims report seeing nothing when shown a series of sticks, yet they are able to correctly report whether the sticks are vertical or horizontal. This best illustrates a. Propagandist. B. Serial processing.

38. According to the Young-Hellholes theory a. The retina contains three kinds of color receptors. . Color vision depends on pairs of opposing retinal processes. C.

The size of the preference threshold is proportional to the intensity of the stimulus. D. Certain nerve cells in the brain respond to specific features of a stimulus. E. The optic nerve processes top-down stimuli.

39. According to the opponent-process theory, cells that are stimulated by exposure to b. Blue; green c. Yellow; green d. Blue; red e.

Yellow; blue light are inhibited by exposure to light. A. Red; blue 40. The fact that people who are colliding to red and green may still see yellow is most easily explained by a. The Young-Hellholes theory. B.

He gate-control theory. C. Place theory. D. Frequency theory. .

The opponent-process theory. 41 . The pitch of a sound is determined by what? A. The frequency of the sound wave b. The amplitude of the sound wave c.

The loudness of the sound wave d. The decibel level of the sound wave e. The vestibular level of the sound wave 42. The sound of a rock band is decibel sound of a nearby subway train. A.

2 b. 10 c. 30 d. 100 e. 1000 times louder than the 100- 43. The coiled, fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses is called the a.

Stanchion tube. B. Auditory canal. C. Semicircular canal.

D. Cochlea. E. Estimable apparatus. 44.

The mechanical vibrations triggered by sound waves are transducer into neural impulses by a. Hair cells. B. The eardrum. C. The oval window.

D. The auditory cortex. E. The vestibular apparatus. 45. Cones and rods are to vision as b.

Cochleae c. Oval windows d. Hair cells e. Semicircular canals 46. The cochlea is a are to audition. A.

Eardrums a. Fluid-filled tube in which sound waves trigger nerve impulses. B. Fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of upright body position. C. Fluid-filled tube that provides a sense of body movement.

D. Set of three tiny bones that amplify the vibrations of the eardrum. . Specific area of the auditory cortex. 47. What is the purpose of the eardrum? A.

Vibration of the eardrum directly causes ripples in the basilar membrane. B. Axons on the eardrum converge to form the auditory nerve, which sends auditory messages to the brain. C. Transduction of sound waves into neural messages occurs in the eardrum.

D. Movement of the eardrum directly causes the stirrup to vibrate. E. To transmit sound from the air to the bones of the middle ear. 48.

The discovery that high-frequency sounds trigger large vibrations near the beginning of the basilar membrane supports the . Regency c. Young-Hellholes d. Opponent-process e. Place theory.

A. Gate-control 49. Which theory best explains how we perceive low-pitched sounds? A. Place theory b. Opponent-process theory c.

Frequency theory d. The Young-Hellholes theory e. Gate-control theory 50. Cocking your head would be most useful for detecting the intensity b. Pitch c.

Loudness d. Location e. Amplitude off sound. A. 51 . A time lag between left and right auditory stimulation is important for accurately a.

Locating sounds. B. Detecting pitch. C. Recognizing rhythms.

D. Judging amplitude. E. Determining frequency. 52.

Joe Wilson, age 55, has been told by experts that a hearing aid would restore his lost sense of hearing. It is likely that Joey’s hearing loss involves problems within the a. Inner ear. B. Middle ear. C.

Auditory nerve. D. Basilar membrane. E. Oval window.

53. A cochlear implant converts sounds into a. Decibels. B. Electrical signals.

C. Air pressure changes. D. Fluid vibrations. E. Neurotransmitters.

54. Deaf culture advocates are most likely to object to the use of cochlear implants for a. Children who have been deaf from birth. B. Adults who have experienced a loss of both vision and hearing.

Children who have never learned sign language. D. Adults whose hearing becomes impaired later in their lives. E. Non-deaf patients. 55.

Which of the following play the biggest role in our feeling dizzy and unbalanced after a thrilling roller coaster ride? A. Olfactory receptors b. Feature detectors c. Basilar membranes d. Semicircular canals e. Eardrum 56.

If you burn your finger, nervous system. A. Ganglion cells b. Vestibular sacs c. Inspectors e. Feature detectors transmit pain-triggering signals to your central 57.

An response to a harmful stimulus, the sensation of pain. A. Bipolar cells b. Inspectors c. Torture detectors d.

Ganglion fibers e. Vestibular sensors initiate neural impulses leading to 58. Which of the following sensory receptors detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals? A. Bipolar b. Hair cells d. Ganglion e. Olfactory 59. An the day she is to be interviewed for an important new position, Rachel awakens with a severe toothache. During the interview she feels no pain; not until 30 minutes later does she become aware again of the troublesome toothache. Earache’s experience is best explained by a. The opponent-process theory. C. He gate-control theory. D. The Young-Hellholes theory. E. Frequency theory. 0. According to the gate-control theory, a back massage would most likely reduce your physical aches and pains by causing a. Release of pain-killing endorphins in your muscles. B. Activation of nerve fibers in your spinal cord. C. The release of adrenaline into your bloodstream. D. Deactivation of the pain receptors on the surface of your skin. E. The cochlea to transducer impulses sent to the spinal cord. 61 . Elf Jarred watches a nurse give him an injection, he experiences more pain than if he closes his eyes during the reoccurred and thinks about his favorite food. This illustrates the value of pain control. A. Ensure adaptation b. Perceptual adaptation c. Subliminal stimulation d. Distraction e. Blindsiding 62. People who carry a gene that boosts the availability of bothered by pain. A. Endorphins c. Ganglion fibers d. Growth hormones e. Transduction are less 63. Phantom limb sensations best illustrate that pain can be experienced in the absence of a. Sensory input. B. Top-down processing. C. Conscious awareness. D. Parallel processing. E. Figure-ground. 64. Tinnitus is a phantom a. Visual b. Auditory c. Taste d. Touch negation. 65. Our experience of pain may be intensified when we perceive that others are experiencing pain.

This best illustrates the importance of a. Sensory adaptation. C. Top-down processing. D. Kinesthesia. E. Difference thresholds. 66. An integrated understanding of pain control in terms of mental distraction, the release of endorphins, and the presence of empathic caregivers is most clearly provided by a. Perceptual constancy. B. Opponent-process theory. C. A biophysically approach. D. The visual cliff. E. The phi phenomenon. 67. Mr.. Skim’s experience of chronic back pain is influenced by his cultural aground, his attention processes, and nerve damage caused by an automobile accident.

An integrated understanding of Mr.. Skim’s suffering is most clearly provided by a. Weeper’s law. B. The phi phenomenon. C. Opponent-process theory. D. A biophysically approach. E. Perceptual constancy. 68. Which basic taste attracts us to protein-rich foods? A. Sweet b. Salty c. Sour d. Miami e. Bitter 69. During the months when there is a large amount of pollen in the air, your hay fever severely affects your sense of smell. At the same time your food all seems to taste the same. This illustrates the importance of a. Accommodation. B. Sensory interaction. C. Kinesthesia. . Serial processing. E. Sensory adaptation. 70. The green-colored ham and eggs had such a strange appearance that they tasted terrible to Sam. This illustrates the importance of a. Difference thresholds. C. Equilibrium. 71 . The McGuire effect best illustrates a. Phantom limb sensations. B. The rubber-hand illusion. C. Tinnitus. E. Color constancy. 72. The area of the brain that receives information from the nose is directly connected with the limbic system. This connection may explain why smells are often involved in which of the following? A. Pain sensations