The 4th Crusade
The most influential and powerful popes documented in the papal middle ages doctrines remain to be Pope Innocent III born Lotario di Segni (meaning Lothair of Segni) in the year 1160-1216. Accept the credible mention of Pope Urban II, who was the founder of the crusading movement. However, there is no record of another Pope who exerted much aggression and influences over the crusading movement that Pope Innocent III.
During his tenure as the Holy See in the medieval middle ages between 1198 and 1216, he called three major crusades militants. These crusades included the Fourth Crusade, Albigensian Crusade and Fifth Crusade. Pope Innocent III advocated and supported all the crusading effort executed in Spain and the Baltic Teutonic knight mission (Packard, 1998).Pope Innocent III formulation of the Fourth Crusade in 1202 was intended for conquering Jerusalem which was currently occupied and controlled by Muslims. The attack route was to be through Egypt, which was marked to commence assault on 1202.
However, due to financial and debt difficulties this crusade invaded and conquered Constantinople a Christian city (Eastern Orthodox) which was the capital city of Byzantine Empire on the Eastern Roman Empire in 1204. The crusaders formulated a Latin Empire on Byzantine kingdom (Orthodox Wiki, 2001). This infuriated Pope Innocent III, and he excommunicated all the crusaders involved in this act later to revoke the excommunication. Cause of ConflictThe cause of the conflict and anger which felled the Fourth Crusade to act against the will of Pope Innocent III was because of political and financial failures. Through Pope Innocent III reign in the papacy the major aspect reports on the crusading effort of retrieving the holy city Jerusalem from the control of Muslims. His other concern was instilling to strove papal supremacy over other secular governments around Italy and Spain as exemplified by Madden and Donald (1997).
Pope Innocent III recalled and blessed the Fourth Crusade to attack the Muslim that was in control of Jerusalem led by Caliph Umar. However, due to the financial crisis which developed through the attack preparation, the crusaders were forced to instead attack the island of Zara which was occupied by orthodox Christian of the Byzantine Empire. This enraged Innocent and he excommunicated all the crusaders that were involved in the conquering of this empire. Now this generated unrest and the conduct of Italy was questionable.
Later, in his bid to transform kingdoms which were secular Innocent accepted the fait accompli. This move was that he could transform the Latin Empire of Constantinople through spreading of Latin rite. However, this practice also proved to be an uphill task and the result were futile and the outcome was exacerbating of the East and West schism (Packard, 1998).Pope Innocent III in his strove to establish conduct in Italy by attacking secular government was interfering with majority of the European States internal affairs. He becomes so much involved in politics dominating and dictating the terms for heirs of Sicilian thrones. Through this intervention Innocent was the guardian to Fredrick II, whom he puppeteer to temporarily to his own powers subordinating the Sicily kingdom as noted by Madden and Donald (1997).
This was executed through instigating the imperial supremacy in Germany between the Welfs and Hohenstaufens. Through this intervention the central authority was shredded. Other vassals of Pope Innocent II were Kings of England, Portugal and the Bulgarian tsar. According to Orthodox Wiki (2001) Pope Innocent III also eradicated and restored power to the whole papal state territory after doing away with Rome’s urban autonomy. After having little faith in the Fourth crusade Innocent during the fall of 1202, he sanctioned and formulated the Order of the Knight of the Sword.
Early 1215 he commandeered the crusade of the Teutonic Knights and embattled the Prussians. Later in 1209 he also called the crusade to engage Albigensians. His method of executing and persecuting heresy was cold blooded and merciless and also assisted the organization in the inquest. The weapon which Innocent used was transforming and converting the orders received from mendicant (Franciscan Order) to make the papal policy mortal.Some of the people who were exposed to the exploitation which Pope Innocent II executed become rebellious and would form crusade and attack their fellow Christians. Some of the ordained crusaders were majority of the defectors who would leave the main papal ordained crusade and form rebel crusade to benefit them.
Conflict then aroused and the Christian started warring against each other for spoils (Godfrey, 1980). One of the major aspects concerning the reign of Pope Innocent III is documented to be the fallout of his quest to attack the Muslims living in Jerusalem in the medieval age. The formulation and recalling of the crusaders provides the fallout of Italy conduct and political conflict of East and West Europe. The forceful extension of political authority outside his jurisdiction generated political conflict, church reforms and church councils all from the influential facets of his reign. The cause of conflicts arising from the formulated crusaders also is the main cause which made Pope Innocent III to become very angry.