Trauma Study Guide (Emt-B)
1. Know different types of burns – Superficial (1st degree) o Involves only epidermis o reddening with minor swelling – Partial Thickness (2nd Degree) o Epidermis burned though, dermis damaged o Deep, intense pain o Blisters and mottling – Full Thickness (3rd Degree) o All layers of skin burned o Blackened areas surrounded by dry white patches – Electrical Burns o Extent of tissue damage may be greater than what appears on the surface 2. Know treatment for different kinds of burns (chemical, thermal) – Thermal: o Use sterile dressings o Nerve apply ointments, sprays, or butters Do not break blisters – Chemical o Wash away chemicals with copious amounts of flowing water o If dry chemical, brush away, then flush with water o Remove Contaminated clothing o Apply sterile dressings o Treat for shock 3. Know how to calculate body surface area burned – Rules of Nines o Adult body divided into 11 main areas o Each represent 9% of body surface – Rule of Palms o a hand represents 1% 4. Know treatment for suspected fracture – Splint the body part and check for distal pulses 5.
Know indications and contra-indications for MAST/PASG – Indications Shock, Pelvic Fractures, bleeding in lower extremities – Contra-Indications o Congestive Heart Failure o Uncontrolled bleeding above the level of the pants o Impalement injury to the abdomen or lower extremities o Stroke o Head injuries 6. Know indications and contra-indications for traction splint – Indications o Closed Femur Fracture – Contra-Indications o Open femur fracture 7. Know “hyperventilation” rate for a head injury – 8. Know musculoskeletal anatomy – Cervical Vertebrae o Seven – Thoracic Vertebrae o Twelve – Lumbar Vertebrae o Five 9.
Know signs and symptoms of SCUBA diving injuries – Decompression Sickness o Nitrogen gas bubbles trapped in tissue, caused by repaid assent o – Air Embolism o Gas bubbles in the blood stream o Scuba diver with frothy blood 10.
Know how to take spinal precautions and fully immobilize a patient on a LSB with c-collar – Examine for entrance and exit wounds before putting someone on a back board – Person at the head, holding c-spine, controls the move – What kind of collar do you use to hold c-spine? o Rigid cervical collar 11. Know treatment for impaled objects Never remove an impaled object, unless it is in the cheek and you can see both ends and it is obstructing the airway. – Stabilize the impaled object with gauze so it doesn’t move 12. Know treatment for soft tissue injuries – 1. direct pressure – 2. Elevation – 3.
Pressure Dressing – 4. Tunicate – Nerve remove a dressing from a bleeding wound 13. Know the treatment for musculoskeletal injuries. – Splinting – What is the best thing you can do for an Injury with no distal pulse? o Reposition the injured part–one time 14. Know treatment for chest injuries, open and closed, and flail segments – Open Chest wound Occlusive dressing – Closed Chest Wound o – Flail Segment (chest) o Assist with ventilations o Place a bulky dressing on flail segment ad tape dressing into place.
o Most severe trauma accident 15. Know GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) – Eye Opening – Verbal Response – Motor Response 16. Know what “battle’s sign” is – Seen with head injuries – Bruising behind the ears 17. Know what “Cushing’s response, or Cushing’s triad” is – Patient has an increased blood pressure and decreased pulse rate from a head injury 18. Know what injuries require an occlusive dressing – Neck, Chest, and Abdomen Sucking Chest wound – Burp the occlusive dressing (release a corner to release air) if a patient begins to be more short of breath 19. Know about heat loss – Convection o Process of heat loss as wind passes over it – Conduction o Transfer of heat for one material to another through direct contact – Passive Rewarming o Cover the patient o Remove wet clothing o Lets the body rewarm itself – Active Rewarming o Application of an external heat source to rewarm the body – Body Shivers to produce heat 20.
Know treatment for drowning – Provide recue breaths If no pulse is found, being CPR – Treat for shock – Patient is not dead until they are warm and dead 21. Know treatment for evisceration – organs are protruding – Treatment: Sterile moistened dressings, keep warm with bulky dressings. 22. Know treatment for shock – Aggressive airway maintenance – Oxygen – Attempt to stop cause of shock – PASG – Splint any suspected bone or injuries – Prevent loss of body heat – “Golden hour” – speak calmly and reassure throughout assessment and care 23. Know signs and symptoms of shock – Altered mental status – Pale, cool, clammy skin – Nausea and vomiting Vital signs change – Underlying Causes of Neurogenic Shock o Dilation of blood vessels 24. Layers of Skin – Epidermis – Dermis – Subcutaneous layer 25.
Compartment Syndrome – Caused by pressure 26. Distended neck veins are caused by: – Trauma asphyxia, Tension Pneumothorax, Cardiac Tamponade. (all of the above) – Cardiac Tamponade: when pericardial sack fills with blood and causes the heart to not have room to fill. 27. What are the Characteristics of Arterial, venous, and capillary bleeding? – Arterial Bleeding o Spurting blood o Pulsating flow o Bring red color o Oxygen rich o Rapid and profuee Spuring with heartbeat o Most difficult to control – Venous Bleeding o Steady, slow flow o Dark red color o Rich in carbon dioxide and waste o Steady flow o Easier to control o Low pressure system – Capillary Bleeding o Slow, even flow o Slow and oozing o Easily controlled o Stops spontaneously 28. What do ligaments do? – Connect bone to bone 29.
Which blood vessels have a one way blood flow? – Veins have valves to maintain a one way flow 30. How do tour open the airway of an unresponsive patient? – Jaw thrust 31. Airway is the priority for a patient with burns to the chest and neck 32. 0 Year old in a motorcycle wreck: – C-spine is the first thing you do 33. AVPU – Alert – Verbal – Painful – Unresponsive – Level of consciousness 34. Autonomic Nervous System’s job? – Constriction of blood vessels – Fight or flight 35.
Amputated part: – Seal it in a plastic page and place it in a cool pan of water 36. What is posturing? – Involuntary flexion or extension of the arms or legs 37. A cardiac arrest patient who is hypothermic, how long do tour try to get them back? – Until they are rewarmed. A patient is not dead until he is warn and dead. 38.
Know the signs and symptoms of an aortic dissection 39. Know the difference between: – Avulsion: o flap of skin – Amputation: o Removal of a body part – Puncture: o an open wound the tears though the skin and destroys underluing tissues. – Abrasion: o a scratch or scrape – Laceration: o a cut 40. Which vessels have the thickest muscle walls? – Arteries 41. Who are less able to maintain their body temperature – New Borns, infants, and elderly 42.
When do you remove a helmet? – Only when it interferes with maintaining an open airway 43. Where does the exchange of oxygen and waste take place? – capillaries, arterioles,