Attitude Change Strategies
Attitude Change Strategies: Attitude changes are learned; they are influenced by personal experience and other sources of information, and personality affects both the receptivity and the speed with which attitudes are likely to be altered. Altering consumer attitudes is-a key strategy consideration for most marketers. For marketers who are fortunate enough to be market leaders and to enjoy a significant amount of customer goodwill and loyalty, the overriding goal is to fortify the existing positive attitudes of customers so that they will not succumb to competitors’ special offers and other inducements designed to win them over.
Most competitors; take aim at the market leaders when developing their marketing strategies. Their objective is to change the attitudes of the market leaders’ customers and win them lover. Among the attitude-change strategies that are available to them are (1) changing the consumer’s basic motivational function, (2) associating the product with an admired group or event, (3) resolving two conflicting attitudes, (4) altering components of the Multi attribute model, and (5) changing consumer beliefs about competitors’ brands. . Changing the Basic Motivational Function: An effective strategy for changing consumer attitudes toward a product or brand is to make particular needs prominent. One method for changing motivation is known as the functional approach.
According to this approach, attitudes can be classified in terms of four functions: the utilitarian function, the ego-defensive function, the value-expressive function, and the knowledge function. I. The Utilitarian Function: We hold certain brand attitudes partly because of a brand’s utility.When a product has been useful or helped us in the past, our attitude toward it tends to be favorable. One way of changing attitudes in favor of a product is by showing people that it can serve a utilitarian purpose that they may not have considered.
For example, the ad for Clorox Disinfecting Spray points out that this product will work for 24 hours, whereas its competitor, Lysol, does not. II. The Ego-Defensive Function: Most people want: to protect-their self-images from inner feelings of doubt they want to replace their uncertainty with a sense of security and personal confidence.Ads for cosmetics and personal care products, by acknowledging this need, increase both their relevance to the consumer and the likelihood of a favorable attitude change by offering reassurance to the consumer’s self-concept. For example, the ad for Suave Performance Series Anti-Perspirant stresses in its headline In a 24-7 World, Your Anti-Perspirant Does not Get To Knock Off Early. III.
The Value-Expressive Function: Attitudes are an expression or reflection of the consumer’s general values, life styles, and outlook.If a consumer segment generally holds a positive attitude toward owning the latest personal communications devices (e. g. , owning the smallest cellular telephone), then their attitudes toward new electronic devices are likely to reflect that orientation. Thus by knowing target consumers’ attitudes, marketers can better anticipate their values, lifestyle, or outlook and can reflect these characteristics in their advertising and direct marketing efforts. IV.
The Knowledge Function: Individuals generally have a strong need to know and understand the people and things they encounter.The consumer’s “need to know,” a cognitive need, is important to marketers concerned with product positioning. Indeed, many product and brand positioning are attempts to satisfy the need to know and to improve the consumer’s attitudes toward the brand by emphasizing its advantages over competitive brands. An ad for Celestial Seasonings that point out that Green Tea is loaded with antioxidants, which are good for you. It supports its claims with some evidence (the bar graph) and an incentive (a cents-off coupon). An important characteristic of the advertising is its appeal to consumers’ need to know.combining Several Functions: Different consumers may like or dislike the same product or service for different reasons, a functional framework for examining attitudes can be very useful. For instance, three consumers may all have positive attitudes toward Suave hair care products. However, one may be responding solely to the fact that the products work well (the utilitarian function); the second may have the inner confidence to agree with the point “When you know beautiful hair doesn’t have to cost a fortune” (an ego-defensive function).The third consumer’s favorable attitudes might reflect the realization that Suave has for many years stressed value (equal or better products for less) – the knowledge function. (1) 2.
Associating the product with admired group or events: Attitudes are related at least in part to special groups, events or causes. It is possible to alter attitudes towards companies and their products, services and brands by pointing put their relationships to particular social groups, events or causes. For example a detergent powder advertising that a certain percentage of their profits will be going towards educating the poor children of the country.A research found that if corporate sponsors fail to explicitly indicate their motives for a company/cause or product/cause association, it is likely that consumer will from their own motive for the association between the company, product or service and the cause. The research indicates that it is good idea for a sponsor to reveal to target consumers the reasoning behind their sponsorship, so that consumers know their motives rather than form their own potentially inaccurate or negative motives.
2) For instance, [email protected] coffee sponsors a program “Wakin’ up the Music,” which supports a music appreciation program for youngsters in grades K-3, created by the [email protected] Foundation. Similarly, Crest sponsors a program that promotes good oral care to children through the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. (1) 3. Resolving two conflicting attitudes: Attitude change strategies sometimes resolve actual or potential conflict between two attitudes. If the consumers may be made to see that their negative attitude towards a product or a specific brand or attributes is not in conflict with another attitude.They may be induced to change their evaluation of a brand (from negative to positive).
Example: Usually detergent powders are effective in cleaning but these also cause a bad effect on the skin. Now in some countries seventh generation of natural dishwashing and laundry detergents is introduced. These are as effective as synthetic chemical cleaning agents and are safer because they are natural. For a person who cares about both effectiveness and environmental safety Seventh generation is attempting to resolve what might otherwise be conflicting attitudes. 4.Altering components of the Multi attribute models: Multi attribute models portray consumers’ attitudes with regard to an attitude object (product, service, etc…) as a function of consumers’ perceptions and assessments of the key attributes or beliefs held with regards to a particular attitude object.
According to these models attitude change can be brought about in four ways: 1. Changing the relative evaluation of attributes 2. Changing brand beliefs 3. Adding an attribute 4. Changing the over-all brand rating I.
Changing the relative evaluation of attributesThe overall market for many consumer products is set out so that different consumer segments are offered different brands with different features. If detergent powder is a product category then one brand may stress potency and the other brand may stress gentleness. In general when a product category is naturally divided according to distinct product features or benefits that appeal to a particular segment of consumers marketers usually have an opportunity to persuade consumers to “cross over”. That is persuading consumers to shift their favorable attitude from one version of the product to the other.II. Changing brand beliefs: A cognitive oriented strategy for changing attitudes that concentrates on changing beliefs or perceptions about the brand itself – a most common form of advertising appeal.
Advertisers are constantly reminding us that their product is “more” is “better” or “the best”. * For example Dishwashing Liquid: * Palmolive dishwashing liquids are designed to extend consumers’ beliefs with regard to product’s gentleness by suggesting that it be used for hand washing of fine clothing items * Bush’s Baked Beans We couldn’t make our secret family recipe any better, so we made it easier (by placing it in a microwavable cup) III. Adding an attribute: This strategy can be accomplished by adding an attribute that previously has been ignored or one that represents improvement or technological advancement. For example previously ignored attribute Yogurt has more potassium than a banana (a fruit associated with high quantity of potassium) for a consumer looking to increase their potassium intake the comparison has the power to change their attitude from banana to yogurt.Another example may be of a refrigerator that has an advanced and unique water filtration system, a feature that reflects a company’s continued efforts to create innovative products. IV.
Changing the over-all brand rating : Another cognitive oriented strategy that attempts to alter consumers’ overall rating of a brand directly, without attempting to change their evaluation of any single brand attribute. Such strategy frequently relies on some form of global statement that this is: * “the largest selling brand” * “thee most awarded car ever” 5. Changing beliefs about competitor’s brands:This approach emphasizes the attitude strategy to change the consumers’ beliefs about the attributes of competitive brands. In general, this strategy must be used with caution. Comparative advertising can boomerang by giving visibility to competing brands and claims. E.
g. a pain killer advertises that no other pain killer works faster or stronger on muscle pain.References: 1) http://www. freewebs. com/mahsfast/CB%20CHAPTER%208.
doc 2) http://free-books-online. org/psychology/consumer-psychology-psychology/attitude-change-strategies-chapter-5/