Autism in psychiatry and psychotherapy is usually seen as a variant of psychotic behavior inherent in early childhood. The authors of one of the latest classifications of childhood psychoses distinguish:
- psychoses of early childhood, or autistic syndrome, manifesting at the age from 1 to 3 years;
- disintegrative psychoses manifesting at the age from 3 to 6 years;
- psychoses of late childhood, manifesting at 7-11 years of age.
The Development of Classification
Some scientists doubt the accuracy of this classification, which makes a case study about autism relevant topic for research. Other researchers also link this disease with an early age, seeing in it an age-related modification of psychoses, an early stage in the formation of schizoid behavior, etc. This position, reasoned in the phenomenological and age aspects, seems quite reasonable, but not the only possible or absolutely correct. This means that conducting a case study of autism is complicated by different approaches of different scientists.
Strictly speaking, the informative core of this phenomenon as a clinical syndrome is the lack of communication, non-contactness, non-communicability. The existing literature focuses on the crucial role of communication in the development of the psyche. This provision has undergone the most complete and comprehensive development. A much less studied area is the development of communication itself, the available works are devoted to the psychological and pedagogical aspect of the issue and consider the ontogeny of communication in connection with the inclusion of the child in communicative systems. Thus, making a case study for autism, it is worth to pay attention to this aspect. Since communication is one of the most important social functions, this disease should be studied from this perspective as well. Even less studied is the question of communication as a special function of the psyche, the presence and realization of which ensure the possibility of coordinating the actions of individuals and through it the crucial role of communication in the further development of the psyche. The clinical practice generates a special problem of the ability to communicate, the contactness of the individual and its violations in the form of insufficiency, limited implementation or inadequacy. This is the problem with a wide range of autistic disorders, which is particularly inherent in children, and should be studied via case study autism.
Scientific Research to Help People Suffering
The mismatch of the potential of autistic children with real development of their personality and the associated difficulties of social adaptation put special tasks for children’s institutions and family in the treatment, education, and training. In the framework of this problem, science should come to a single concept of assistance to such children and adults, by developing special autism case studies for teachers. Because of the disagreement between the positions of different schools and directions, the prevalence of ideas about the identity of autism in various diseases, the heterogeneity of the observed groups of patients, the state of the problem is characterized by inconsistency and incomparability of the data obtained. One way to overcome these difficulties is the comparative study of this disease in the structure of various disorders of the psyche and the development of techniques for helping autistic children and adults. The formulated approach has its limitations. Nevertheless, an autism spectrum disorder case study should be conducted in the frameworks of this problem since this is the only way to bring the study of this problem to a new level.
Literature Analysis of the Topic
The problem of childhood autism was formulated by Leo Kanner in 1943 and developed by him and his staff for many years. However, similar conditions attracted the attention of researchers even earlier. In the literature of the beginning of XX century, one can find separate descriptions of autistic behavior in children due to congenital cerebral disorders and emotional trauma in early childhood. In the Western literature, the articles Kanner were followed by an avalanche-like increase in the number of publications. Recently, the pointedly polemical nature of the discussion of the problem begins to give way to a more restrained and correct approach that takes into account the variety of conditions described by this term.
The Development of Terminology
A case study autism spectrum disorder should be conducted in order to develop a correct terminology as well. Many attempts to define it concern its various aspects. These aspects include the subordination of thoughts to affective needs, the predominance of a closed way of life with active non-perception of the environment, the lack of need for joint objective activity, a painful immersion in one’s thoughts, isolation and anthropophobia, the presence along with the withdrawal from reality of active personality tendencies. The drawback of the available definitions is their descriptiveness, and they are regarded as ambiguous and unsatisfactory.
Autistic thinking and derived from them terms are used both to describe and to explain the normal psyche and a wide range of mental disorders. Semantic difficulties are even greater when referring to children’s autism. Many researchers emphasize that it is not identical to autism in the traditional sense as a specifically procedural pathology of thinking, but some suggest that, in relation to the conditions called children’s autism today, this term should be abandoned at all.
Thus, the terminology and classification of such a disease require detailed development. The causes of this disorder are also ambiguous. This allows concluding that a case study on autism should be conducted in order to fill the gaps in the development of this problem, and develop common concepts and approaches to help people who suffer from this disease.
Autism Real Examples
This disease was characteristic of many famous people. This allows scientists to treat autism not only from as a disease or a deviation, but even to reveal certain factors when this disease brought unexpected results. Albert Einstein is one of the most frequently mentioned alleged autistics. He began to speak late, was a lonely child, arranged severe hysterics, silently repeated previously pronounced sentences and had other oddities that now speak of the presence of this disease. This is only a single example, but in fact, a lot of famous people suffered from this disease, and they gave the world amazing discoveries, masterpieces of music, art, and literature. Their lives and creativity may serve as a basis for scientific research as well.