IBM Case Study Free Essay Example
This 29 years old patient’s main complaint is low back pain. Ale’s low back problem initiated 4 years ago and it has been bothering him since then. Low back pain is pain, muscle tension, or stiffness localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluten folds, with or without leg pain and is defined as chronic when it persists for 12 weeks or more (Chou, 2011).
Low back pain should be considered a symptom that is rarely attributable to a specific disease or pathologic lesion (Seller and Symons, 2012).
It is most often caused by mechanical impact to include postural backache, cute lumberjacks strain, degenerative lumberjacks arthritis. Other causes include sciatica, lumbar spinal Stetsons and chronic low back pain. Non-specific low back pain is pain not attributed to a recognizable pathology (such as infection, tumor, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, fracture, or inflammation). Regardless of the cause, backache is most common in patients between 20 and 50 years of age (Seller and Symons, 2012).
The condition affects more than 1.
1 million people in the I-J, with of patients suffering from problems affecting the lower back (National Institute of Clinical Excellence, 2009). Back pain currently costs the INS and community care services more than El billion each year. Alex describes his pain as constant, dull to moderate which did not happen after a specific incident, it rather developed slowly over a period of time. Previous rugby injuries might have caused micro tears in the tissues and contributed to the back problem.
Alex does not have any pain in his legs or buttocks, no pins and needles, numbness or stiffness, therefore sciatica and sponsorships are unlikely.
Spinal Stetsons can also be excluded as it mostly occurs in those aged 60 or over (patient. Co. UK, 2009). Degeneration of spinal discs is also unlikely to be the case for Alex because it is an age related disease, it takes decades of repeated daily stresses on the spine and occasional minor, unnoticed injuries, as Nell as major ones, to develop related symptoms.
Several lifestyle factors contribute to this patient’s chronic, non-specific lower back problem.
First of all, the patient’s eddy Mass Index (IBM) is 35. 3 which is classified as obesity. IBM and height have been linked to the pathogenesis of low back pain (Hierarchies et al,2013). The Normalized prevalence of obesity has nearly doubled between 1980 and 2008 (Global Health Observatory, 2008). The key findings of the Health Survey for England (2011) show that in 2011 , Just under a quarter of men (24%) and Just over quarter of women 26%) were obese, and 41% of men and 33% of women were overweight.
In comparison 34% of men and 39% of women had a IBM in the normal range. Meta- analysis of 33 studies indicated that overweight and obesity increase the risk of low back pain (Shirr et al, 2009). Overweight and obesity have the strongest association Ninth seeking care for low back pain. Obesity not only contributes to the patient’s low back pain, but it also increases the risk of high blood pressure, heart disease and anger. Treatment of obesity involves most of all changes in diet, a reduction in calorie intake by 600 kcal is recommended (INS Choices, 2012).
Cutting down on fat and sugar, increasing fresh fruit and vegetable intake and introducing moderate- intensity exercise can help to loose excess weight. There are many anti-obesity medications available, but so far only Royalist has been proved to be safe and effective (Drew et al, 2 7) Royalist reduces the absorption to undigested tat into the body by one – third. Royalist could be the short term treatment for Alex to stop rather weight gain. However permanent lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) would provide long term results. Sedentary lifestyle and lack of exercise are another major contributors to non-specific low back pain.
Study on the role of obesity and physical activity in non-specific and radiating low back pain found that both obesity and low level of physical activity are independent risk factors and moderate level of physical activity is recommended for the prevention of low back pain, especially in obese Individuals (Shirr et al, 2013).
Alex spends most of his day at work on his feet and ends down, the repetitive work, the excess weight put more pressure on discs and joints resulting in pain and discomfort. Work related back problems are common especially in office workers and manual laborers.
An above-average prevalence was identified for occupations associated with physically strenuous work involving one- sided postures, moving, carrying and holding heavy weights, and work typically performed in poor conditions or bad weather (Schneider et al, 2006). Psychological Ineligible plays an important role in the occurrence of back pain. Pain and depression are closely related. Depression can cause pain ? and pain can cause depression.
There is some evidence demonstrating the link between back pain and depression, where individuals with chronic low back pain are at high risk to experience anxiety and depression (Sager et al, 2013).
Most cases of back pain that last no longer than six weeks can be treated with over-the-counter painkillers and home treatments. For chronic back pain, several treatments are recommended. Lifestyle changes such as loosing excess weight and exercise can play major role in reducing back pain. Medical treatment of chronic back pain include painkillers and anesthetic or steroid injections (INS Choices, 2013).
If the above treatments do not Nor, patients may be offered antidepressants or counseling, since how they think or feel about the condition can make it worse. Spinal surgery is considered in chronic pain, when all else has failed.