Case Study: New York
Environment Midtown Manhattan (main hotels, shops, theatres, prestige buildings) Downtown Manhattan (financial banking district, Twin Towers) Problems Due To Growth High cost of land: In central areas, lead to skyscraper development.
High land values mean only successful firms can locate here. Smaller companies have been forced out urban decay: Many inner city housing areas were built in 19th century.
The blocks flats and housing suffered years of neglect. The worst areas become ghettos. Houses were rented, but some could not afford, so they became empty.
Ghettos became home for the poorest families. Overcrowding occurred in number of houses and people Immigrants: Not offered equal opportunities. Centrifugal movement occurs (Immigrants find Jobs and move away, leaving them vacant for other immigrants). Many immigrants are trapped in the circle of poverty. In 1990 there was 50,000 homeless people In New York Traffic congestion:
Each morning 2 million commuters travel Into the area and at night travel out.
75% travel by public transport. Roads become blocked and rivers that once made the area appealing now makes congestion worse. Unemployment: sass’s – 1. 5 million people were unemployed. Due to a decline In port, In associated Industries and clothing Industry. New Industries – high tech and In finance, people do not have skills.
Crime: Arguably the greatest and single problem. Street violence, muggings, drug-related crimes and murder turned parts of Manhattan Into a “no-go” area.
Ethnic groups had own communities and racial tension was high Pollution: Collection and disposal Issue. Vehicles (alarm and noise), visual pollution (run down houses) Water supply: Pumped almost km Climate: So hot that wealthier people have a 2nd home to stay at. Winter has blizzards.
Skyscrapers create ‘canyons’ which cause strong wind to funnel and cause sun not to shine. Case Study: New York By Substantiates successful firms can locate here. Smaller companies have been forced out Urban Not offered equal opportunities.
Centrifugal movement occurs (immigrants find Jobs trapped in the circle of poverty. In 1990 there was 50,000 homeless people in New Each morning 2 million commuters travel into the area and at night travel out. 75% sass’s – 1.
5 million people were unemployed. Due to a decline in port, in associated industries and clothing industry. New industries – high tech and in finance, people crimes and murder turned parts of Manhattan into a “no-go’ area. Ethnic groups had Collection and disposal issue. Vehicles (air and noise), visual pollution (run down