Conduct a Study on Differences in Individual

They are “among the very few social psychological concepts that have been successfully employed across all social science disciplines” (Reach amp; Ball-Reach, 1989, p. 75). Values have an influence and affect the behavior of individuals (Locke, 1976; Reach, 1973). Arguments: In organizations, values form a major part of the components of organizational culture (Reilly & Chatham, 1996; Scheme, 1985), and are sometimes described as being responsible for the success of management for several companies (Mitchell & O’Neal, 1994). Values have also been characterized as “the most distinctive property or defining characteristic of a social institution” (Reach, 1979, p.


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Little agreement is found on the nature of values. Values have often been referred to as well as been put in the same category as needs, motivations, goals and attitudes. Theoreticians (e. G. , Falling, 1965; Reach, 1973; Williams, 1968) have distinguished and focused on two types of values.

One type is that which an individual places on an object. A second type of value is likely to describe a person or personal values (Feather, 19950. Focus on the values of individuals will be discussed rather than objects.

A work environment should rather strive to encourage a positive attitude and stray away from negative perceptions and influences that affect behavior. Mischance et al, 2010). A set of moral values will shape how individuals will treat each other and conduct themselves.

(Reach, 1973). The end company cannot affect the influences that shaped a person’s values before they were hired, the organization can put into place relevant programs to influence the employee behavior in the workplace (Mischance, 2010).

Training programs, clear outline of code of conduct and the formation of ethics committees can guide the employees as to which behaviors are acceptable in the organization. While it may not change the care values of the individual, it can empower them as to decide to participate in unethical behavior while in the workplace (Mischance, 2010). The creation of a reward or punishment system can also benefit the fostering of the type of values the organization wants to see in its employees, a prolonged version of this may instill in the employees a new or changed set of values.

There is often a gap between a person’s behavior and their organization (Feather, 1995). Numerous suggestions have been made to explain the similarities and the differences in the values by which individuals hold. One suggestion derives from values that are “founded, in part, upon the fundamental biological similarities of all human beings” (Chuckhole, 1951, p. 418). Another suggestion is that individuals rely on values as a way to Justify their behavior (Nor et al.

, 1988). Some differences in values could be the result of differences in individuals in a population’s behavior.

The most frequently seen reason for similarities and differences regarding values are that they are greatly influenced by personal experiences (Bern, 1970; Jones & Gerard, 1967; Reach, 1973). Essentially, organizations do not possess values apart from the employee’s values (Meaning et al, 1998). Values are a major component of an organization’s culture (Reilly & Chatham, 1996).

Shared values encourage more efficient and positive interactions between individuals, so does an organization’s culture begin to facilitate the same interactions that occur between employees in and around the workplace.

Organizational researchers often make use of Research’s (1973) measure of general social values. They also make use of Wallace, Goodbye, Wilting, and Smith’s (1971) river of specific work values; these are some of the more prominent theories that are used. This raises concerns for the comparison of the findings of different studies, but will also create a problem of understanding of value related processes (Connors 1975, 1994). Table 1. Definitions of the ten values groups.

These 10 characteristics can be shown in Chart’s values circumflex on the next page.

Figure 1: Schwartz value circumflex The ten groups are then split into four main constituents, self-enhancement, as opposed to transcendence, openness to change as oppose to conservation (Mischance t al, 2010). While the terms used to describe values are not uncommon to the language used every day to describe characteristics or outcomes of the values, there is a high importance level to distinguish between the two. While there may well be a similarity between motivation and the related outcomes, this is not always the case.

An activity which involves a pleasurable activity is not necessarily motivated by hedonism, the same as; a powerful social activity may be motivated by more than social Justice and equality than by power. There can also be artists that are motivated y their work not for the fame which they achieve through it, rewards gained, or a desire to ‘prove themselves’ usually tend to be the more successful.

It is important to be clear and concise about the definitions of these values. Desiring achievement through and in the sense of personal success, through demonstrating a skill and competence which are Judged according to social standards.

There are five values that are different between the various cultures are: individualism, collectivism, power distance, avoidance and achievement orientation. Organizations can utilizes Hess and with ethical training, code of ethics, ethics hotness and the like, can use the value congruence to their benefit (Mischance et al, 2010). One approach that has dominant motivation of the different group of individuals.

Volunteering, charities or educational activities may also present opportunities for personal gain.

This approach is helping to highlight the importance of understanding the different motivational differences between the individual sets, and which can be successful in achievement of goals, but has a downside of repeated ‘engagement’ (Mischance, 2010). No part of work is value-free; instead it embodies and reinforces values. The organization should not promote their behavior to only aim at intrinsic values in communication but also to carry it through all areas of work. Understanding the various elements of society and various aspects of culture will help foster the desires of social recognition, power, wealth and the like.

This also causes the diminishing importance of people and the environment; the organization must address these to have the full benefit of value congruency. In the end the organization must never lose eight of the bigger picture, it must always have a long-term vision , incorporate a systematic change and make sure it has set out a clear understanding of what the values and expectations are (Mischance, 2010). When communicating, educating or facilitating, a first-hand experience will have a far greater impact than second hand, self-direction values are also more likely to be engaged and understood by the receiving audience.

Organizations also need to be clear to their values regarding advocacy, lobbying and policies, e. G.

What policies would be best for the appreciation f others and fair opportunities (Mischance, 2010). The relationship of the people, who work for the organization and the organization itself, is of absolute importance and the way the organization handles certain aspects will affect that relationship e. G. Holding a meeting in a community space giving the employees a chance to give their feedback from their feelings and values, thus giving them a chance to participate.

Conclusion The extent that an individual values behavior appears to be related to their decisions and behavior regarding a relevant situation (Meaning et al, 2010).

Value incongruence has been found to be positively related to affective outcomes and evaluations (Meaning et al, 2010). The way an organization engages their employees through services, events and or fundraisers will help strengthen certain values. The changes the organization makes will bring about effects that are more direct and distinctive; this will also strengthen certain beliefs (Mischance, 2010).

Scrutinizing and analyzing the drivers of values and the differences thereof, and starting to work together more, making the power gap smaller between the organization, will strengthen certain values (Mischance, 2010). Aligning communications and rethinking the organizations will increase the overall positivist between employers and employees. Putting in place, policies that can foster and use the intrinsic and reinforce the extrinsic values, will strengthen certain values (Mischance, 2010).

Through assessment per organization, the understanding of values and value congruence can be used positively.