Cruise Case Studies
By Soledad Mina Roguel Overview This lesson discusses what an instructional module is all about, its parts, and the different formats used in writing it. Also included are pointers in writing instructional objectives and some tips for effective writing. Modules allow the learners to go through the material at their own pace. They may be used for self-instruction or to complement instruction. Knowing how to write learning material in module format is an important skill that trainers should develop. ObjectivesAt the end of this presentation, you are expected to: 1.
Define what an instructional module is. 2. Discuss the different components of a module. 3. Write objectives in behavioral terms.
4. Discuss some tips in effective writing. What is a module? Russel (1974) defines module as an instructional package dealing with a single conceptual unit of subject-matter. Modules are designed to help the students accomplish certain well-defined objectives. With the use of a module, instruction can be individualized. The learners can go through the material at their own pace and at their own time.
They may also be used to complement instruction. What are the components of a module? The format and style of a module may differ depending on its purpose and the institution where it is developed. See Table 1 for a comparison of different module formats. As agreed upon in one of the meetings of the Technology Promotion Program, for the training manual that will be produced at PhilRice, the components of each module should be title, overview, objectives, discussion of content, self-check test and evaluation activities, and references.A brief description of each part follows: Title. It showss the specific topic of the module.
A good title should be clear, concise, and reflective of its content. Overview. It serves us the introduction of the module and describes jts scope and rationale. The overview summarizes the content and importance of the module. In some modules, this section is called introduction, prospectus, or rationale. Table 1.
Comparison of Module Formats Duldulao (2000)| IRRI| PCARRD (1997)| CLSU-ILO (2000)| Title| Title| Title| Title| -| About the Module| Prospectus| Rationale| Scope| |Topic Opener| Rationale| Description and Scope| Overview| | Objectives & Topics| Objectives| Objectives| Objectives| | Suggested Methodology| Discussion of Topics| Strategies| Discussion of Topics| Materials/visuals| | Resources| Self-check Test &| References| | Requirement| Evaluation Activities| Evaluation| | Topics| Reference| | Objectives. A common feature of most modules is a statement oflearning objectives. They explain the knowledge, skills, and attitudes you warlt to teach. They should be stated in terms of the learners’ behaviors. Objectives a11o” you to focus and organize the information you would like to present.
They also help the learners do self -evaluation. Verbs such as “know” and “understand” are vague and do not tell us what the learners will be doing to demonstrate their understanding. See Table 2 for a list of specific verbs that may be used in stating your instructional objectives. Remember the acronym SMART when writing your objectives. S – pecific M – easurable A – ttainable R – ealistic T – ime bound Discussion.
In IRRI and Duldulao’s models, objectives and topics are presented together. The suggested format is to present all the objectives at the beginning and the presentation of content follows based on the stated objectives.What information should be included in a training module? Minnick (1989) classified materials that may be included in any instructional material as: 1. need to know 2. nice to know 3.
less nice to know 4. barely relevant 5. might be used someday For purposes of training, the materials should be limited to the “need to know” information that are vital and important. Furthermore, organize your content for clarity. As Reddout (1987) noted, the structure is almost as important as the content.
Organize your material from simple to complex.Include pictures, diagrams, and other illustrations that may help clarify the information presented including exercises and hands-on activities that the learners should engage in. Emphasize the scientific principles and the “why” in the topics being presented. Evaluation. A self-check test, exercise, or other means of assessing learning outcomes are common features of a module. Follow-up activity or topics for discussion to reinforce learning may also be included.
References. This a list of books or guides used in preparing the module or other materials that may be consulted for further understanding or appreciation of the lesson presented.Style Another consideration is the style that you should use. Should it be formal, informal, or conversational? Decide on the treatment you wish to adapt for your module. Regardless of the style used, what is important is clarity arid simplicity. Tips for Effective Writing Van Daele (1995) gives a number of suggestions on writing training manuals that are easy to read.
They are as follows: * Write for your audience * Organize your material * Rewrite, revise, and edit your material * Use charts and illustrations to support your message Identify your subject * Use clear, short, familiar words Eliminate unnecessary words * Keep sentences short and simple * Use the active voice * Use the imperative mood * Use notes’ * Use emphasis * Use ordering techniques. * Use point form * Avoid using only male pronouns. Summary Instructional modules are learning materials designed primarily for independent or self-study. They may also be used to complement instruction. The recommended components of the module for PhilRice training manuals are title, overview, objectives, discussion of topics, self-check test and evaluation activities and references.
What is important to remember is to write your objectives in behavioral terms, focus on the need-to-know kind of information, and to write clearly and simply. References Duldulao, Virginia A. Let’s Produce More Rice (A Training Manual). Munoz, Nueva Ecija: Department of Agriculture. Philippine Rice Research Institute, 2000.
Integrating Alternative Approaches to Infrastructure Development and Transport Planning (IDTP) into the Educational and Research Programs of CLSU and Other Institutions. A Terminal Report. CLSU-ILO Project, 2000. Minnick, Dan R.A Guide to Creating Self-Learning Materials, Los Banos, Laguna: IRRI, 1989.
Reddout, D. J. Manual Writing Made Easier. Training and Technology Journal. April, 1987.
Russel, J. D:- Modular Instruction. Minneapolis: Burgess Publishing Co. , 1974. Strategic Communication Planning and Management: A Package of Training Modules. Los Banos, Laguna: PCARRD,1997.
Van Daele, C. A. 50 One-Minute Tips for Trainers. Menlo Park, CA: Crisp Publication, Inc. , 1995. Evaluation: Self -Check Test 1.
What is an instructional module? 2. What are the components of an instructional module we wish to develop for PhilRice? . Why are objectives important? 4. What are the characteristics of a good instructional objective? Table 1. List of Specific Verbs Based on Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in the Cognitive Domain Knowledge| | Comprehension.
| Application| | Define| | | Translate| | Interpret| | Record| | | Discuss| | Apply| | List| | | Describe| | Employ| | Recall| | | Recognize| Use| | Name| | | Explain| | Demonstrate| Relate| | | Express| | Dramatize| | Underline| | Identify| | Practice| | Repeat| | | Locate| | Illustrate| | | | | Review| | Operate| | | | | Report| | Schedule| | | | Tell| | Sketch| | Analysis| | | Synthesis| | Evaluation| | | | | | | | | Criticize| | | Compose| | Judge| | Distinguish| | Plan| | Appraise| | Analyze| | | Propose| | Evaluate| | Differentiate| | Design| | Rate| | Appraise| | | Formulate| Compare| | Calculate| | | Arrange| | Value| | Experiment| | Assemble| Revise| | Compare| | | Collect| | Score| | Diagram| | | Construct| | Select| | Test| | | Create| | Choose| | Relate| | | Set-up| | Assess| | Examine| | | Organize| | Estimate| | Categorize| | Manage| | Measure| | Relate| | | Prepare| | | | | | | | | | |