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Signature: Houseboys seaman 12th November 20131 Date : 1 _Illumination One of the world’s largest hydroelectric plants is Saying Sensuousness Power station Plant, with a dam of 245 m (800 Ft) high and stretches 1 km (0. 6 miles) crossways on the Weenies River. The station opened in 1978, It supplies a quarter of Roughshod output and Is a major power supplier to at least two smelters owned by united Company URSULA, the world’s largest aluminum producer (Book and Pop et al. , 2010). The hydroelectric power station is located on the Weenies River, near Kangaroos in Khakis, Russia.

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Before the accident, it was well known the largest power plant In Russia and the sixth-largest hydroelectric plant in the world In early Monday morning on August 1 7, 2009 at the -Sensuousness Hydroelectric Power Plant (SSH), which is located on the Weenies River, near Kangaroos in the Republic of Khakis, in the southern region of the Russian Federation.

By 8:00 a. M. , technicians were on field operating multiple hydroelectric turbines at the plant, Including unit 2 and plant maintenance work on other equipment was continuing as usual. Other members of the plant staff were Just arriving, ordinarily, the plant was performing practically well regardless of the many troublesome maintenance problems.

If truth were told, Just over a month earlier Lully 2), Roughshod Public Corp.

.. (Roughshod), the owner and operator of Saying-Sensuousness Hydroelectric Power Plant, declared that the plant had set an all-time 24-hour electricity production record (Book and Pop et al. , 2010) appended in the plant and mainstream of the turbine had broke apart, costing the lives of 75 workers and total loss of 6,MAW and a significant segment of the supply to the local grid leading to power failure in the local area and forcing major users such as aluminum smelters to switch to diesel generator. An official report on the accident was issued on 4th October 2009.

This research is being carried out to break down the scenario that has occurred in the Saying-sensuousness Hydroelectric Power Plant (SSH), and to investigate on the disaster and what was the failure that led up the turbines to explode.

Therefore this duty will cover the management process of the Saying-sensuousness Hydroelectric Power Plant and to describe their industrial process along with the evaluation of the root factors that cause the disaster, as well the study will reveal the consequence of health, environment and damage cost that been caused by the disaster, Lastly, the research will put forward the improvement and prevention actions to promote safety. Figure 1 2. Management and operation Management structures is the most essential arrangement, it appears in every type of organization including government departments, non-government organizations Nags), charities, and even the local sporting association. Therefore selecting the proper management structure makes certain an organization has nonstop expansion, In other hand choosing the wrong structure produces tensions between employees and managers, which allows unproductive work practices to burgeon and reduces company profitability. In the worst case, a faulty management structure can lead to company finality (Bombastic,CPA. , n.

D. , up. 1-3). For that reason, there are a number of key components that strengthen a management structure and should be considered when put into practice a new structure.

Several of these key components are: Complexity Task definition Co-ordination Type of Influence Vertical Communication Style Horizontal differentiation Centralization Spatial differentiation Formalization Figure 2 3. 0 Industrial process 2004, even though the Russian government owns most of its shares (about 60%).

Roughshod still possess 55 hydro plants, is the leading power company in Russia by installed capacity estimated (25. 4 GO) and the second-largest hydroelectric power company in the world. The energy generated by SSH, about 23. 5 Two annually, was bout one-quarter of that produced by Rushed resources for the Unified Energy Systems of Russia and Siberia. United Company Arousal’s aluminum smelters have the most generated energy about 70%, which produce about 12% of the world’s aluminum (Book and Pop et al. 2010) At the start of construction in 1961, and before the accident, Saying- Sensuousness Hydroelectric Power Station was the largest hydroelectric power station in Russia and the sixth-largest hydroelectric power station in the world by considering the average power station.

The length of the completed dam is 1,066 eaters (m), and it rises 242 m above the river floor thus, SSH was the largest hydro power plant in the world. The dam is of the arch-gravity type its width of the dam is 105. 7 m at its base and 25 m on the ridge, a design where the center of the dam extends upstream and ends arch back in order to direct most of the hydrostatic force against the canyon walls.

The maximum capacity of the spillway has maximum capacity that agrees on 13,600 mm/sec (3. 6 million gallons/sec). (Grudging V and Flavor D, n.

D. ). The project’s turbine gallery housed 10 turbine units, each rated at 640 MM but each capable of peaking up to 720 MM. Rated head for each of the hydro turbines was 192 m. Figure 3 3. 1 Operation Function The Saying-sensuousness power plant features units of 10 hydro turbines and generators supplied by SC Power Machines.

The turbines are equipped with a highly developed industrial protection system. If any unacceptable mode deviations, units are automatically shut down and parameters are monitored.

The maximum turbine efficiency of the turbine is rated to 96. 6%, and the service life of the newly hydraulic units is estimated to increase by up to 40 years (improved safety and process control Saying-sensuousness Hydroelectric Power Station, n. .

) Characteristics will also be enhanced for its power and cavitations. Nonetheless the design for the operation of function here are the main characteristics: * Number of Units: 10 * Turbine Type: Francis (16 blades) Rated Power: 650 MM each Rated Discharge per Unit: 358,5 mm/so Nominal Speed: 142,86 RPM Net Head: 194 MO operation Date: 19780 Runner Weight: 156 ton Runner Diameter: 6,77 m 4. 0 Causes of accident 4. HUMAN FACTOR: One of the main causes of the accident is the human factor, human honest mistake. For instance, unit 2 was under maintenance, should have been shutdown in April, as a minimum before the accident since there was vibration stream. No action was taken at the time when it hit the maximum technically allowed vibration and the mean vibration and stayed at that level.

On top of that, the team failed to detect critical conditions of operation (Accident at Russian’s Biggest Hydroelectric Plant). Also not to mention that the poor maintenance of bolts fatigue in 2009 was not defeated 4. 2 Design Factor: Prior to the accident emerged, Turbine 2 had experienced numerous problems for a long time.

The first problem has appeared in 1979 after the installation of the Turbine 2. Through 1980-1983, many more problems with seals, turbine shaft vibrations, and bearings surfaced. A complete reconditioning of turbine 2 was performed from the end of March to the end of November 2000.

Cavities up to 12 millimeters (0. 47 in) deep and cracks up to 130 millimeters (5. 1 in) long were found on the turbine wheel and repaired. Several other imperfections were found in the turbine bearings and subsequently repaired. In 2005, further repairs were made to turbine 2. Problems found were similar in several aspects to the defects observed during the previous repair (Staff, 2012).

Turbine 2 was undergoing scheduled repairs and rebuilding in January to March 2009. It was the first and only turbine in the station, which was equipped with a new electro-hydraulic regulator of its rotational speed supplied by the Promotional Company. Throughout the route of the repair, there were soldering on the turbine blades, because cracks and cavities had appeared after a long period of operation. Even though, the turbine wheel was not properly rebalanced after these repairs. As a result, turbine 2 had increased vibration, ca 0. 15 millimeters (0.

0059 in) for the main bearing at the full load of the turbine. While that did not exceed stipulation, the increased vibration was undesirable for long-term use.

The elevated vibration compared to other turbines was apparent for turbine 2 before the repair as well. The vibration exceeded the allowed specification in the beginning of July and continued to increase with accelerated speed. However, the levels of vibration increased largely on the night of accident 16-17 August regardless of the all-several attempts to stop the turbine.

During 16 August up to 20:30, the load of turbine 2 was 600 MM, and then it was reduced to 100-200 MM. On 17 August 2009 at 3:00, the load was increased again to 00 MM; at 3:30, the load was decreased to 200 MM; and at 3:45, it was increased again to 600 MM. During this time, the level of vibration was very high, and was registered by seismic instruments in the plant.

The rotor inside the turbine was pushed up throughout attempts to shut it down, which in turn created pressure pushing up on the turbine cover. The cover was kept in place by 80 bolts of 8- centimeter (3.

1 in) diameter (Staff, 2012). At the time nine out of the ten turbines were operating, with a total output 4,400 MM. While Turbine number 6 was, undergoing scheduled maintenance, but was ready for restart. The turbine vibrations were the mainly cause of the accident, which led to the weariness damage of the mountings of the turbine 2, including the cover of the turbine. It was also found that at the time of accident at least six nuts were missing from the bolts securing the turbine cover. As 49 recovered bolts were investigated after the accident, from which 41 had fatigue cracks.

On 8 bolts, the fatigue damaged area exceeded 90% of the total cross-sectional area. Figure 5 5. 0 Consequences of the effect of the accident Ever since the disaster happened, there were several impacts towards human health, environment, ecology and damage costs. Saying-sensuousness Power generation is disconnected instantly following to what Roughshod later referred to as a powerful hydro shock (Kamikazes, 2009). 5. 1 Environment and ecology For the duration of investigation, investigators certainly believe that an oil transformer has been exploded and caused the wide ranging damage to the plant, destroying a portion of the turbine hall and flooding both the hall and facilities underneath it.

The environmental cost of the accident has the most effect in view of the fact that oil pollution has been spreading on the Weenies River, around 20 tons of ransomed oil had leaked into the Weenies because of that, the explosion has already killed 400,000 tones of trout and fishes, according to reports. Although the structure of water intake is used by several towns and cities located in the region of the river thus Local ecosystems remain under threat (Kamikazes, 2009). 5. 2 Damages costs/ Health costs/ Environmental costs/ Compensation costs: Moreover, the accident took the lives of the 75 people besides; some went missing and are alleged to have been killed when the turbine room was flooded following what is now described by officials as a “hydraulic impact” of yet unknown origin.

Most of the losses were to workers who were working either on the turbine gallery or in the flooded rooms below. Compensation of 1 million rubles ($31,600) paid to each victim’s family, and 100,000 rubles (US $3,100) to each survivor (Kamikazes, 2009)).

The community where most of the workers were housed was flooded and destroyed. The director of 17 years was replaced. In addition, several people went to Jail. Saying- Sensuousness, the Russian’s largest hydroelectric power plant and largest among all of the country’s power plants in general as it is known, is a 6,400-megawatt site with an annual output of 23. Billion kilowatt-hours as it’s estimated.

However, following the accident power supply from the plant was cut off, causing blackouts in residential areas around it.

In addition, the accident caused part of the plant’s structure to collapse, destroyed one turbine, and critically damaged two. Remain Turbines 2, 7 damage to 4, 5, 8, and 10. However Turbine 6 which was in scheduled repair received minor damage. A transformer explosion caused when water flooded the engine and turbine rooms (Staff, 2012). To repair the damage and to restore the power station of Saying-sensuousness to its capacity will take several years and approximately OUR 0 billion ($1. 25 billion) as state officials announce (Kamikazes, 2009).

6. Improvement and prevention The terrible accident at Russian’s Saying-sensuousness Hydro Power Plant that cost 75 lives, caused major demolition of primary hydrophone plant equipment and buildings, and affected the region’s ecology. It has been over since years ago, in spite of the investigation report comments on some the responsible persons and the causes, even though there are several questions regarding on the design and safety of Saying-sensuousness Hydro Power Plant remain unanswered (Russianamericanbusiness. Erg, 2012) From the Roughshod list of plant design improvement, there are a number of important technical and cultural improvements missing. For instance: Figure 6 6. Design and process The culture that places more value on the economics of power production than on human and plant equipment safety must change.

As well, staff safety must be paramount and guide all operating decisions. Lack of recognition of hazards including impact of aging equipment must necessary to take into account. Budget always should constraints intended cut back on maintenance, safety, education and investment for prevention a hazard accident in future. Besides there was not any good system for how to control/operate immediately following a disaster, this is the first steps for organization to avoid major losses (Accident at Russian’s Biggest Hydroelectric Plant). 6.

Human Resource If the SSH Power Plant’s management track their structure of management accordingly which is already perfect, the disaster could be prevented in one way or another. Management of an organization plays a significant role to avoid lost from imperfect issue, because only management controls all the activities and improvement. The management plays a key role in negotiating issues, representing a apartment on board meeting, and in resolving a conflict. Therefore the employees should have acknowledgment on needs repair and needs shutdown since it was within specifications, even though vibrations were upsetting, they did not identify the 6. Safety and Health To have a safe hydroelectric power station is most important matter in any plant therefore the management of that plant most consider more about the future disaster and the impacts, also what is the ways to prevent from natural disaster losses. In order to have a safe plant the Safety systems or backup systems should include the planning of catastrophic failure.

As well, safety standards have to simplified and cut back. Unfortunately the management of the SSH Power Plant did not learn from previous disaster that occurred 2 times in 1979 and 1985 (Accident at Russian’s Biggest Hydroelectric Plant). 0 7. 0 Conclusion: Saying-sensuousness hydroelectric power plant station, is the one of the largest hydro power plant in Russia as its dam is 245 m (800 Ft) high and stretches 1 km (0. 6 miles) across the Weenies river which is where is located, it is opened in 1978.

The station provides a quarter of Roughshod output and is a major power supplier to the oral’s largest aluminum producer, at least two smelters owned by United Company URSULA.

The station experienced a disastrous in turbine known as a water hammer “pressure surge” on 17 August 2009, due to the ejection of the turbine 2 with all equipment the water pressure surge was abrupt it with total weight about 900 tons. While turbines 7 and 9 also suffered from severe damage, as the same time as the turbine roof destroyed on it and damaged turbines 3, 4 and 5. Though Turbine 6 that was in scheduled repair at the time of accident, received only minor damage, since it as the only one of the station’s 10 turbines did not receive electrical damage due to shorting of transformers.

On the following days, the authorities of Roughshod announced that 69 people were found dead while 6 other people are still listed missing. The damages were a large number, total loss of equipment inside the powerhouse has gone, and to re-build the plant again it will consume time, 5 years as minimum. There are damages happened to main concrete structures of the powerhouse; also, Water under high pressure increased the initial damage.

In addition, several damages occurred to the transformers. This major accident has an environmental impact as numerous of oil had been spilled into the river, killing the fish and causing an environmental scandal in the news. For improvement and running a safe hydro power plant, technology should always update and implement it.

Whenever there is, a new safety factor found it should always put into practice to every hydro power plant. However, natural disaster could occur in any type of measurement where even the plant has the most distinguished security and safety is employ although it could be broken, with the possibility of the natural disaster could append in volatile ways.