ob analysis and Job descriptions4 Job analysis and the major components4 Reasons for job analysis4 The relationship between Job analysis and Human resources5 Job descriptions and the components involved5 The importance and use of job descriptions6 Questions for analysis6 Job description8 Job context8 Job purpose8 Position environment8 Relationships8 Core responsibilities9 Outcome statements of the position9 Selection criteria Essential9 Desirable10 Accountability10 Performance indicators10 Special circumstances11 Reflection11
Reference list13 Appendix14 Answers for job analysis14 Introduction Human resource management is defined as the process that manages the employment relationship (Seward, Dein, 2005, p. 3).
Human resource management recognizes that the people make the organization and provide the company with a competitive advantage. The aim is to assist the organisation in using people to achieve the businesses objectives (Seward, Dein, 2005, p. 3). A Job analysis is a key activity in human resources, and provides information regarding positions in the organisation.
It is an important topic as it is a vital employment tool which can assist with HR activities and potential and current employees, ‘Job analysis is the systematic study of positions to identify their observable duties and responsibilities, as well as the knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform a particular task or group of tasks’ ( Kovac,2006, p. 1).
The significance of this essay is to conduct a job analysis to further my understanding of the topic and to develop the analysis into a job description. The importance and use of job analysis is discussed and the major components which are involved.
The method used for this job analysis is a questionnaire consisting of questions targeted at a real estate sales representative. The answers to the job analysis questions are then developed into a job description for that position. The job description includes what skills, qualifications and responsibilities are included in the job, and who would be a suitable candidate.
I state my reflections of this assignment to express the challenges and rewards I received from conducting a job analysis, and whether or not I could consider doing this as a full time profession.
Hence why job analysis is an important aspect in an organization, it allows workers to provide management with information regarding the job that others may have overlooked, ‘little opportunity is provided for active involvement of job incumbents and potential workers in design of jobs. ‘ ( Ghorpade,1988, p. 4) Managing change is also important in human resource management, which often means that positions also have to adapt to the changes in the organization.
Job analysis assists the issue of change by realigning jobs with the organizations goals, ( Ghorpade,1988, p.
6). The relationship between Job analysis and Human resources Job analysis plays an important role in HRM. The main aim of Job analysis is to supply HR with the relevant job information that is needed for the increase in performance for the organization. (Ghorpade, 1988, p. 4). For instance, a product of job analysis is job design which allows HRM to redesign jobs to increase the quality of work life, safety and productivity.
Job specification provides HRM with job data regarding what skills and qualifications are vital for that position, this in turn increases the effectiveness of the organization. Overall job analysis contributes to the value of the organizations human resource management by providing them with the data needed to improve the effectiveness, ‘ job analysis contributes something of value to the human resource management… the job variables uncovered through job analysis can be used by HR in forecasting needs, and formulating action plans’ ( Ghorpade,1988,p. 5).
Job descriptions and the components involved The final product of a job analysis is the job description, this is a written document on what the position is, how it is performed, what is needed to be performed and who the candidate should be, ‘ a job description is a written statement explaining why a job exists, what the job holder does, how he or she performs it, and under what conditions’ (Stone,1998,p. 119). The formulation of descriptions involves gathering job information (job analysis), writing a draft, reviewing or approving the draft, final authorised version of description. Clark, 1992, p. 190). Various components are involved in a job description and these differ for each job.
The job identification defines how the position in located in the structure of the organisation. This includes information such as, the job title, department, reporting relationships, and job status. (Stone,1998, p. 120). Job identification can be important to an employee (current or potential) as it provides the job with meaning and value.
The job summary explains why the job exists and what purpose or objective it has for the organisation.
The duties and responsibilities is a major focal point of the job description, it specifically states what is needed to perform the job adequately. This section of the description paints a picture of what is required by the position. The accountability category is used to indicate how the performance of the job will be analysed, ‘accountability is used to indicate the basis in which performance in the job will be judged’ (Clark, 1992, p, 195). The importance and use of job descriptions
Job descriptions have many purposes and uses in an organisation.
Selection and recruitment can use job descriptions in the hiring process to be certain that the best candidate will be selected for the position. As previously mentioned the people are the driving force towards the organisational goals. If the potential workers can possess what the job description states then the driving force towards the goal will be stronger. Job descriptions can also be used to conduct performance reviews and compensation on existing employees.
It can also assist in gaining a greater understanding on what is involved with the job, ‘help managers and current employees understand what the job is and how it is to be performed’ (Stone,1998, p.
126). Regular updated job descriptions can help HRM remove unnecessary job requirements in addition to removing conflict and dissatisfaction, ‘Job descriptions regularly updated with the most recent job analysis can immensely help the HR professionals to identify and eliminate unnecessary job requirements, areas of conflict or dissatisfaction’ (Siddique,2010, ).
A regular update of job descriptions also keeps employees informed and clear with what is to be expected and how their performance is to be aligned to achieving the objectives of the organisation, this clarity then has a positive impact on their performance, ‘workers develop a better understanding of company expectations…
This role clarity, in turn, improves workers’ morale, job satisfaction and productivity.