Non-Verbal Feedback and Virtual Organizations
Nonverbal Feedback Nonverbal feedback is a form of communication in which a sender conveys powerful messages by means of body language, facial expressions, posture, eye contact, gestures, and signs. Additionally, messages can be conveyed nonverbally through clothing and other appurtenances, office decor, different aspects of paralinguistic (tone of voice), touch, and the physical space. Nonverbal feedback matters because it works in conjunction with verbal communication to create shared meaning and ensure that messages are understood clearly (Kreitner, 2009). For example, in a research study examining the effect of nonverbal feedback from authority figures on employees, it was discovered that different aspects of nonverbal communication affect employee behavior in many ways. Here, the study findings indicate that those employees who received positive nonverbal feedback in form of smiles, head nods, and eye contact from their bosses were more likely to respond positively compared to those who received frowns and avoidance of eye contact.
This implies that positive nonverbal eedback plays a major role in creating good interpersonal relations in the workplace (Kreitner, 2009).Virtual Organizations Organizations have undergone numerous changes in terms of structure and management due to the effects of globalization, changes in market structures, technological advancements, and consumer preferences. Moreover, with increased competition in the global markets, many organizations have adopted new structures some of which target a small number of the organizations’ core competencies and resources to initiate growth without compromising productivity and performance. In most cases, organizations are forced to share resources with other organizations including competitors in order to keep up with the technological changes while cutting operational costs and retaining competitiveness. Most of these changes have been recorded within the virtual organizations (VOs) revolution period. Here, the virtual organization refers to temporary, flexible, and dispersed networks of independent entities linked by different technological devices or concepts while shariing skills, critical resources, knowledge, and market spaces/expertise in more nontraditional ways.
The technological devices/concepts, which have had the greatest impact on the virtual organization, include the Internet, the World Wide Web, telecommunications, and video conferencing (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008; Pang, 2001).On the other hand, the main advantage of the virtual organization is that it offers the best solutions to organizations with great business ideas, but limited capital to invest. Therefore, by sharing critical resources, skills, and costs, virtually-linked organizations find it easy to expand into the global market. Moreover, the virtual organization reduces travel time and costs including relocation expenses and the cost of setting up a conventional business office. Regrettably, experts indicate that it is not easy to manage employees within the virtual organization and hence employee performance, productivity, and motivation cannot be guaranteed. Furthermore, various communication challenges such as language issues are very evident in any virtual organization (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008; Pang, 2001).