Plan of the investigation
Section A: Plan of the investigationHow did the Southern States succession from the Union enable the 37th Congress to act more efficiently and disrupt the balance of powers?When the southern states succeeded, their senators and representatives would have been recalled, leaving a smaller legislative branch that was of a more similar mind-set. This could have created a Senate and House of Representatives that was less divided and as such enabled them to pass legislature quickly and grant President Lincoln more power. This investigation will examine the number of senators and representatives before and after succession, the legislation passed in both of these time periods, and the actions taken by the President that would have had to be approved by Congress.
This investigation will further analyze the book, Justice in Blue and Gray, and the historical minute essays produced by the US Senate for their origin, purpose, value and limitation to, in conclusion, determine whether the succession did make the 37th Congress more efficient while destroying the balance of powers.Section B: Summary of Evidence? The Thirty-Seventh Congress had four sessions, one being an emergency session (July 4, 1861 to August 6, 1861) and another, a Special Session of the Senate (March 4 1861, to March 28 1861). 1? The House of Representatives of the 36th Congress had a total of 238 representatives and 5 delegates (delegates representing territories), with 116 being republicans and 83 democrats. 2? The House of Representatives of the 37th Congress was composed of 183 representatives and 7 delegates – of which 108 where republicans and only 44 democrats.* 3O Legally, the Middle South States had yet to succeed by the beginning of the emergency session of the 37th Congress and therefore their representatives were included in this count.? The Senate at the start of the emergency session had 21 vacant seats caused by the Deep South succession.
4? Upon the Middle South States succession, the numbers of both the House and Senate dropped again, but not in the uniform matter alluded to by the number of senators and representatives allotted to each succeeding state.? In many of the Border States, pro-union representatives and senators still presented themselves to Congress on behalf of their state.O The delegations from West Virginia who would occupy the deserted seats previously held by Virginia (during this time period West Virginia was considered by the Union to be Virginia and thus Virginia is still viewed has having representation).? There was no democratic caucus leader during the 37th Congress. 5? When the delegations from the Middle South States, who succeeded as soon as the 37th Congress began, the representatives either voluntarily retired or were formally expelled from the Congress by the resolution of March 4, 1861 or had their seats declared vacant by the resolution of March 14, 1861.
6O From the Journal of the Senate, “Mr. Fessenden submitted the following resolution for consideration: Resolved, That Albert G. Brown and Jefferson Davis, of Mississippi, Stephen R. Mallory, of Florida, Clement C. Clay jr.
, of Alabama, Robert Toombs, of Georgia, and Judah P. Benjamin, of Louisiana, having announced that they are no longer members of the Senate, and having withdrawn therefrom, their seats in this body have thereby become vacant, and the Secretary is directed to strike their names from the roll of members.” 7? These changes in representatives and senators created a supermajority of the Republican Party with republicans outnumbering democrats 3 to 1 (Southerners being primarily democrats and Northerner’s republicans).8