Political System of Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia is a monarchy state which has ever been under the rule of kings from the family of King Abdul Aziz Al-Saud. The state of Saudi Arabia is currently headed by the Prime Minister, King Abdullah Bin-Abdul-al-Aziz Al-Saud. He took over the reign of this Islamic state in the year 2005 from Fahd who was the late King, and Abdullah’s half-brother (Bayliss, 2009).

The government is divided into three branches. The first branch is the executive branch which is headed by the King, who is also the Prime Minister. The King is assisted by the Crown Prince, currently Prince Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz. The Crown Prince serves as the Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Defense and Aviation, and also as the Inspector General. The executive branch consists of the Council of Ministers appointed by the King. The second branch is the legislative branch which is just a Consultative Council (Majlis al-Shura) consisting of 150 members selected by the King.

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The Council serves for a term of four years after which it is dissolved by the King and he selects another Council where at least its half must consist of new members. The decisions of the Council are adopted by absolute majority which they transmit to the Council of Ministers to decide on (Bayliss, 2009). The third and the last branch of the Saudi Arabian government is the judiciary which headed by the Supreme Judicial Council. The Constitution of this nation is purely based on the Koran and basic law as the guiding principles in which Sharia law forms the framework of the legal system. The rulings of judiciary are made on the basis of the Koran and Sunna but the laws are supplemented by legislated laws of the central government.

The judiciary therefore is prone to influence the royal family and provincial governors (Bayliss, 2009). There are four branches of Sharia courts connected with criminal, family, and personal injury cases alongside property matters. These courts are: Limited Courts, General Courts, Appeals Court and the Grievance Board.