The researcher wishes to express her deepest gratitude and warmest appreciation to the following people, who, in any way have contributed and inspired the researcher for the overall success of the undertaking: To my adviser for the guidance, support and approval in the duration of the study. To Kevin and Regine who helped her finish this research paper.
To her friends, who have been unselfishly extending their efforts and understanding. To her parents who have always been very understanding and supportive both financially and emotionally. And above all, to the Almighty God, for the love and for the continued guidance and protection. The Researcher UYY Table of Contents Outline4 Introduction5 Discussion/Body6 Summary9 Conclusion10 Recommendation10 Bibliography11 UYY OUTLINE Thesis Statement: There are Livelihood Programs for the Out of School Youths in Aurora I. Definition of Livelihood Programs
II. Reasons why there are Out of School Youths A. Financial Crisis 1. Increase in Tuition Fees 2. Poverty B. Pregnancy for Girls and Married Adolescents C. Family Background D. Others III. Programs for the Out of School Youths A. Program Orientation B. Trainings C. Counseling Assistance 1. TESDA 2. DTI 3. Other Agency Cooperatives D. Monitoring and Follow – ups IV. Effects of these Programs A. Knowledge B. Skills C. Self – Opportunities 1. Self – employment 2. Employment for Private Industry 3. Small Business Industry D. Employment Increase
INTRODUCTION Many children nowadays are considered as out of school youths. These are the people, who drop out of school and who are unemployed, usually because of financial crisis and poverty. It is therefore very important to design livelihood programs in Aurora for the Out of School youths to provide them with skills necessary to make academic, social, spiritual, and emotional progress toward self – sufficiency and become productive citizens in our community. The paper seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What is a livelihood program? 2) Why are there many Out of School Youths in Aurora? (3) What are the Livelihood Programs and how can these help the Out of School Youths? (4) When will these programs be applied? (5) Where in Aurora should these programs be applied? (6) What are the effects of these programs? And lastly, (7) Who are the persons involved in these livelihood programs, except for the out of school youths? This research paper will only focus on the out of the school youths in Aurora. The researcher limited this research to the programs for the Out of School youths.
The researcher believes that many Out of School children will benefit from this research. The writer also hopes that the study on Livelihood Programs in Aurora for the out of school youths will be effective. DISCUSSION of BODY Livelihood Programs in Aurora for the Out of School Youths Livelihood programs are specified as a plan or action to achieve a job, work, or any source of income for the youth who do not attend school or who drop out prematurely which misses many of the fundamentals of basic education.
However, many of the OSY have gained rich learning experiences from their environment and culture which need to be recognized, tapped into, and enhanced. Out of school youths may have failed to complete their education in the formal system due to various reasons, such as financial crisis or the situation in which the supply of money is outpaced by the demand for money, hence making it hard for the parents to educate their children. According to government statistics, 10% increased on tuition fees of the students which caused students to drop out or temporarily stop schooling.
And now, these out of school youths reached the number of 14. 6 million. The Student Council Alliance of the Philippines is afraid for this continuous increase. But according to the Commission on Higher Education, like a domino effect everything in increasing. And if we want to have a good education, we should give them what their budget needs. Similarly, poverty is one of the factors that affect the students to drop out of school. While basic education is free, many poor families are unable to finance the auxiliary schools of their children.
Filipino families have to make a choice between sending their children to school and spending their meager income on food in order to survive. Poverty and government neglect have made education a luxury to many of our countrymen. For women more likely to leave because of pregnancy or early marriage which include lower educational levels, have no decision-making power in their marital home, have extremely limited access to reproductive health information and services, and poorer “life outcomes” in children of teenage mothers.
Family background strongly influences, also, the propensity to drop out of school and accounts for virtually all the racial differences in dropout rates. Children might have a single parent at home or their parents raise them with permissiveness, others are poor parent-child relationship, family receives public assistance, neither parents nor guardian is employed therefore their parents don’t have enough time for them, a sibling has dropped out of school which influenced him, and their parent/s also didn’t graduated from high school.
Lastly, out of school youths falls into categories. One of these is the youth who is especially vulnerable and socially marginalized which include street children who are basically deprived of family care and protection, orphans who permanently bereaved of his/her parents, migrants who moves from one region/country to another, child soldiers or children under the age of 18 and are participating in armed conflicts, and drug users.
For these reasons, the Out of School Youths Programs strive to provide a comprehensive program designed to empower participants who have dropped out of school and/or who are not working, to learn the skills necessary to make academic, social, spiritual, and emotional progress toward self – sufficiency and become productive citizens in our community. It’s also designed to address towards jobs, aptitudes for jobs, and to enhance the readiness toward employment, training needs, and skill deficiencies of out-of-school youths.
Program services include program orientation about these programs for them to know its advantage to their lives. The orientation will be about individual assessment and development of an employability plan which will make them become a self reliant, active partners in economic growth, responsible and productive individuals through provision of training opportunities with linkages from various agencies and provide opportunities for employment.
Besides from these, experience shows that peer education, which involves training representatives among out-of-school youths to convey information, training in interpersonal and self-esteem skills, goal development, and job skills can be an effective strategy where peer educators understand the lives and concerns of their peers, and are therefore more trusted.
And for these programs to be more effective, Out of School Youth children will be assisted by agencies like TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority) or the agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Labor and Employment which is responsible for managing and supervising technical education and skills development, DTI (Department of Trade and Industry) can help by implementing programs where OSY children can graduate, and other agencies like Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and Alay Sa Kaunlaran Incorporated (ASKI) by hiring unemployed or underemployed, skilled/unskilled or educated/less educated youth to their programs to chart a path toward successful employment or further education. OSY programs will be held at summer and are located in community-based organizations which offer a range of occupational training in many industries, including construction, food service, tourism, healthcare, and retail. But these programs should not only be done at beginning, it should continue on-going, like 12-month follow-up to ensure no or little number of children will be called out-of school youths. After implementing these programs, numerous effects will come out. One is the out-of-school youths will gain knowledge or information that will surely change their lives.
They’ll be more capable of different or more effective actions which they’ll achieve when they joined the OSY programs and trainings. Second, when children finished the programs and trainings, they’ll acquire certain skills such as the skill to become career self-reliant which will enable them to survive and even thrive in times of great change, interpersonal skills that will help them recognize and improve their ability to determine appropriate self-behavior, cope with undesirable behavior in others, absorb stress, deal with ambiguity, structure social interaction, share responsibility, and interact more easily with others. Some other skills obtained are teamwork skills and negotiation skills.
Third, out of school youth children will have the opportunity to have different kind of jobs like self – employment because they have the skills. They’ll be provided financial assistance to help them create jobs for themselves by starting a business or they’ll be employed to private companies which are automatically linked to them. With the tough competition for jobs nowadays even among college graduates, the door to a decent job seems closed to OSYs. But now, with the help these programs, they can have or manage their own jobs or small business like food products, handicraft weaving, tailoring, and hair salons. Aside from the hands-on learning sessions, the course also offers on-the-job training in industries and business establishments.
The free courses such as welding, building wiring installation, small engine mechanics, carpentry, masonry, and bag making are based on industry requirements and use TESDA community-based skills modules to ensure that graduates will have better chances of acquiring gainful employment or meeting market demand for services and goods. Graduates are also assisted in finding jobs through industry referrals or are given micro-enterprise support. It’s very obvious that after the trainings are completed, out of school youths will not be called out of school youths again because they now have jobs, businesses, or others may return to school. And if this happens, our employment rate will increase which means few jobless people. Construction and manufacturing sectors, which are very affected by economical crisis, will also increase. SUMMARY The following are the highlights of the study: Fact1.
The reasons for having Out of School Youths in our community are financial crisis, increase in tuition fees, poverty, pregnancy for women and married adolescents, family background, and others like street children, orphans, migrants, child soldiers, and drug users. Fact2. The programs will be conducted at summer and are located in community – based organizations like barrios. Fact3. Program orientation, trainings, counseling assistance, and monitoring and follow – ups are the program services for the out of school youths to prepare them for a better future. Fact4. As a result of the programs implemented, the out of school children gain knowledge, acquire certain skills and achieve self – opportunities for employment and small businesses. Fact5.
TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority), DTI (Department of Trade and Industry), DSWD (Department of Social Welfare and Development), and ASKI (Alay sa Kaunlaran Incorporated) are the agencies that may help for the project to be successful. CONCLUSION It can be concluded that: 1. There are valid reasons for having out of school youths in our community. 2. Summer is the best time to conduct the programs due to the fact that the agencies who will assist the OSY’s in barrios are more available. 3. Program services are designed for the out of school youths to become productive citizens, address them toward job, and to enhance their readiness toward employment. 4.
The time spent by these youths as they are out of school or unemployed will be more useful. 5. TESDA, DTI, DSWD, and ASKI provide help in conducting the programs to benefit more out of school youth. RECOMMENDATION The researcher suggests to the future researchers to: 1. Conduct a wider programs and trainings like in our country to lessen the economic crisis. 2. Give or add more courses for the out of school children to gain other skills. 3. Allow the out of school youth trainees to take as many courses as they can and want.
BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books Drucker, Pete. “Knowledge,” The New Republic. B. Encyclopedia “Livelihood Programs,” The New Lexicon Webster’s Encyclopedic Dictionary. Deluxe Ed. C. Periodicals/ Journals Levine, Felice J. Out of School Youth Programs,” American Educational Research Journal: 44 (2007) D. Videos Saksi: Number of out-of-school youths rising. Julius Segovia. GMANewsTV, 2007. E. Internet Websites Educational Outside School Setting, Joint United Nation Programme. http://www. unaids. org “Monitoring,” UNESCO. http://unesco. org “Other Agencies,” http://www. fo1. dswd. gov. ph Out of School Youths, Interagency Youth Working. http://info. k4health. org “Out of School Youths. ” Wikipedia. < http://www. wikipedia. com> “Opportunity Areas for Out – of – School – Youths. ” Department of Labor. <http://www. doleta. gov> “Out – of – School – Youths got Second Chance. ” Philippine Star. <http://www. philstar. com> UYY