Bra Is one of the seven constituent Barings of the Municipality of Dangles In the province of Bra. Being a rural community for the past years, the bargain Is now In the verge of development and modernization due to significant advancements In the field of science, technology, and economy. Although rampant signs of repatriations are still not yet observable, national road constructions paved the way in steering the bargain to modern standards of living.
This study aims to lay out the possible beneficial and detrimental effects of this phase of arbitration which is road construction and how it these acts affect the environment and the resources proximal to the bargain. It also aims to suggest ways on how to strengthen the advocacy on environmental protection and conservation through different alternative measures.
Based from the data gathered from ocular visits, interviews, and comparison with related literature, some parts of the road constructed were deficit of approximately 1-3 Inches.
Also, landslides and soil erosion was prone In most parts of the roadside which Is a factor to be considered In road usage. It was a common notion to the people of the bargain that the road was of beneficial use In terms of more frequent exchange of goods and commodities could take place. Moreover, they were aware of the environmental Impacts Tanat ten road construction Intellect Ana to ten Torture Impacts AT ten road to the area.
It was suggested that more comprehensive and extensive environmental methods to protect the environment shall be implemented as to not degrade the richness of their resources without compromising their own economy as well.
Keywords: Road construction, arbitration, modernization, Anagram page 2 of 29 INTRODUCTION Arbitration nowadays is not that rare anymore. First-world countries such as United States of America lead in this industrial discipline. Road construction is one of the main requirements for arbitration which basically makes transport of goods and products accessible to everyone (Pr©Fontanne, 2014).
However, it has a great impact on the natural environment. In one of the earliest articles published in Canadian Geographic Magazine related to the theme of arbitration entitled “The harm our roads do to nature and wildlife” tackle the issue of expanding road systems damaging nearby animal and plant populations, and the environment as a whole, a verbatim statement of Solely and Fenton (1972) says that: “While highways bring us closer together, speed our events, and alter the economy profoundly, they seriously affect the natural environment.
Animals, birds, insects die in great numbers, and vehicle killings are only one aspect of wildlife destruction.
Car exhaust pollutants, such as lead and other gasoline additives, oil to reduce dust, and winter salting poison food supplies. Wide open spaces and traffic often inhibit the normal movements of shyer animals. ” A particular place known as Bargain Anagram located in Dangles, Bra is prospected to be affected by a road construction from Dangles, Bra to ‘locos Norte.
The project was passed from successive congressmen from time to time Just until now that it is already being implemented by the Local Government Unit of Dangles, Bra which is expected to be of official use in 2016. Page 3 of 29 This study is of high significance which can weigh the pros and cons of arbitration particularly road construction. It would be beneficial not only to the place of study but to all citizens planning to build their own houses in urban as well as rural areas.
Additionally, this is to raise awareness about the beneficial and destructive effects of this certain environmental issue. And lastly, this case study is a good beginning of initiating action to address the particular issue. This case study aims to give the possible impacts of arbitration in the ecology, economy, and way of life in the areas of orgy. Anagram, Dangles, Bra. Specifically, other case study goals are: to know the current status of orgy.
Anagram, Dangles, Bra ecologically and economically; to determine the possible effects of the road construction Ana Romanization around ten area, to assess ten advantages Ana disadvantages of the project; to identify to which extent of the derogatory effects of he arbitration in the bargain be mitigated; to discern the pulse and feedback of the residents and other related people from the bargain about this issue; and most importantly, to influence in raising awareness and trigger action to the society regards to arbitration and then to other environmental issues as well.
Page 4 of 29 METHODOLOGY As documentation, picture-taking of the road constructions and observations have been done first in Bargain Anagram, Dangles, Bra and nearby areas on October 4-6, 2014. Series of interviews had been conducted addressed to the Bargain officials and to he members of the community as part of data collection, community immersion and field visit.
It was ensured that the interview had been used confidentially as a valid document only for this study and had been utilized in the Juxtaposition between this paper and the review of related literatures for further rationality. Review of Related Literature and Studies The following studies were seen to be related in the basis of (1) main arbitration factor, which is road construction, (2) the consideration of ecological impact/s of road construction, and (3) the need to stress the importance of considering the ecological effects of this activity.
The main points upon considering their abstracts and summary were (1) facilitated mortality or roadside directly affect populations by reducing their sizes and densities, (2) roads can later be barriers that may affect wildlife movement, disrupting population structures and may cause division of populations leading to demographic and genetic consequences, (3) disturbances such as noise and traffic volume may lead to avoidance of the areas, (4) chemicals and pollutants may affect vegetation and habitat quality, (5) development (due to construction) affect biodiversity , and (6) there is a need of considering more of the effects of road instructions ecologically. Page 5 of 29 Roads and their major Ecological Effects (Forman and Alexander, 1998) A huge road network with vehicles ramifies across the land, representing a surprising frontier of ecology.
Species-rich roadsides are conduits for few species. Roadsides are a premier mortality source, yet except for local spots, rates rarely limit population size. Road avoidance, especially due to traffic noise, has a greater ecological impact. The still-more-important barrier effect subdivides populations, with demographic Ana proudly genetic consequences.
Road networks crossing landscapes cause local hydrology and erosion effects, whereas stream networks and distant valleys receive major peak-flow and sediment impacts. Chemical effects mainly occur near roads.
Road networks interrupt horizontal ecological flows, alter landscape spatial pattern, and therefore inhibit important interior species. Thus, road density and network structure are informative landscape ecology assays. Australia has huge road-reserve networks of native vegetation, whereas the Dutch have tunnels and overpasses perforating road barriers to enhance ecological flows. Based on road-effect zones, an estimated 15-20% of the United States is ecologically impacted by roads. Assessing and Managing the Ecological Impacts of Paved Roads (Committee on Ecological Impacts of Road Density, National Research Council, 2005) [paraphrased excerpt] It was stated in this paper that ecological impacts of roads may be seen directly or gradually overtime. Direct effects in the study areas (US roads), one of which is facilitated mortality was seen as a contributor in reducing population density that may ultimately affect the survival probability of local populations.
Roads, too, serve as Page 6 of 29 barriers for wildlife movement that may eventually lead to disruptions in population structures. Other disturbances such as noise and traffic volume affect by triggering avoidance of species in the areas. Pollutants were seen to be affecting habitat quality and vegetation, and the whole development scheme was seen to be affecting the biodiversity by transportation. 3.
A summary of the environmental impacts of roads, management responses, and research gaps: A literature review (Adagio, 2010) There are an estimated 400 000-550 000 km of unpaved resource roads in British Columbia. These roads are used for forest, mineral, and energy development, commercial and public recreation, and in some cases for access to private land loading.
This literature summary lists road effects on terrestrial and aquatic wildlife, plant communities, and physical elements found across landscapes in British Columbia. These effects may be local or may apply to large areas. Road effects can occur during construction or with subsequent road presence, upkeep, and use. Also summarized are recommendations meant to reduce negative road effects.
These include taking a strategic approach to road and access management, using structured road planning methods and tools, implementing mitigation techniques, and following up with effectiveness monitoring and reporting. The summary also revised recommendations for further studies of road effects.
Page 4. Effects of Roads and Traffic on Wildlife Populations and Landscape Function: Road Ecology is Moving toward Larger Scales (van deer Ere et al. , 2011) ABSTRACT Road ecology has developed into a significant branch of ecology with steady growth in the number of refereed Journal articles, books, conferences, symposia, and “best practice” guidelines being produced each year.
The main objective of this special issue of Ecology and Society is to highlight the need for studies that document the population, community, and ecosystem-level effects of roads and traffic by publishing tidies that document these effects. It became apparent when compiling this special issue that there is a paucity of studies that explicitly examined higher order effects of roads and traffic.
No papers on landscape function or ecosystem-level effects were submitted, despite being highlighted as a priority for publication. The 17 papers in this issue, from Australia, Canada, the Netherlands, and USA, all deal to some extent with either population or community-level effects of roads and traffic.
Nevertheless, many higher order effects remain unqualified, and must become the focus of future tidies because the complexity and interactions among the effects of roads and traffic are large and potentially unexpected. An analysis of these complex interrelations requires systematic research, and it is necessary to further establish collaborative links between ecologists and transportation agencies. Many road agencies have “environmental sustainability’ as one of their goals and the only way to achieve such goals is for them to support and foster long-term and credible scientific research. The current situation, with numerous small scale projects being undertaken independently of each other, cannot provide the information required to annuity and mitigate the negative effects of roads and traffic on Page 8 of 29 higher levels.
The future of road ecology research will be best enhanced when multiple road projects in different states or countries are combined and studied as part of integrated, well-replicated research projects. The following literatures were found out to be related in the study for they tackle road construction and maintenance, and give somehow ћprotocols” and guidelines on how roads should be built. Guidebook for Road Construction and Maintenance Management, Second Edition (Department of Public Works and Highways and Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2014) Mayo last September to prove an up a a tea Ana multiform set AT standards Tort planning, design, construction and maintenance of national highways.
This guidebook envisions to “effectively assist our engineers and technical personnel involved in road works with improved best practices and procedures” to fulfill the “international standard national roads that redound to the improvement of their [Filipinos] lives, and for the Philippines to attain sustainable economic growth and ensuring global competitiveness” that the Filipino people deserve. [text mainly from foreword by Mr..
Region Singsong, DEPTH Secretary] The Layman’s Guide to Private Access Road Construction in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, Second Edition (Tee et al. , 2005) A publication provided by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service that includes “the most up to date information on mountain road construction and the impacts of poorly constructed mountain roads on stream water quality’. 3. Guide on Construction of Industrial Developments in Singapore (2010) Page 9 of 29 A guide published by the collective efforts of different agencies in Singapore that aims to “provide investors and industry players, e. Developers, consultants and builders, with an overview of the key regulations, processes and procedures involved in the planning, design, construct and implementation of an industrial building development” due to the importance of having a good knowledge of the regulations and procedures involved to achieve efficient and speedy completion of any industrial development.
Page 10 of 29 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS A. The Site 1. Demographics Anagram is a remote bargain of Dangles in the province of Bra with rich ecological background governed by Mayor Esther Oberon. The area has lush and averse vegetation which makes a good livelihood to the people living in it. G Aerial flew AT ten wangle Anagram Yellow line adjacent to the black line (river area) represents the road observed and studies. Whole course of the yellow line represents the length of the road connecting Bra and ‘locos Norte.
In addition, the place has notably high temperature that is scorching to the skin.
In the span of the 2-day community immersion and field visit, it was observed that life seems to be difficult for the people in this area. Economically speaking, the community in general is Just in line with the average type of living relative to the epistyle of people in urban areas. Because of this, it was also observed that people depend in the natural resources the environment offers which implies that the site is ecologically stable with diverse plants all over the wide range of over-looking mountains, abundant aquatic animals along Bra River and presence of upstream (water falls) that increases nutrient Page 11 of 29 availability for organisms living in downstream (river), Fig. 2.
Residents make use of the resources as a way of living to survive life that is away from the capital.
Fig. 2 Rich and diverse ecosystem of the site Details of the Road Construction Since arbitration is already rampant in the country because of the fast advancement in technology, this remote place is now also in the first stage of arbitration, that is construction of national road traveled by huge vehicles. This project was first proposed by Congressman Luis Chit Bearskin and passed through next generation of congressman. The construction of road connecting Bra and ‘locos Norte made a huge impact in the ecological status of the place and possible impact for the human community.
Bombing mountain sides is one step in road construction that disturbed the peace and balance of the organisms living in the place and the debility of the mountain Page 12 of 29 soil which caused massive and numerous landslide during typhoon Mario. Aside from this, impressions deforestation was also noted in reference to the mountains proximal to it.
Based from various observations along the length of the road at 2 km distance, it was noted the failure to follow proper protocol of Department of Public Works and Highways for road construction, that is the minimum 250 mm (9. 84) inches thickness of National Roads unless it will pass the Cumulative Single Axle Load (DEPTH, 2011). Measured at road sides that was exposed, it was found to be with inconsistent thickness at different points, Fig. 3, 222 mm and 240 mm respectively. Page 13 of 29 g 3.
Inconsistent tenseness AT pavement at Deterrent pool TTS AT ten road Page 14 of 29 Moreover, steepness of the bombing of mountain sides caused numerous landslide due to improper plan for the side slope of the mountain sides may cause run-off of soil particles or soil erosion destroying the vegetation up in the mountain and landscape and may cause sedimentation of downstream during run-off, Fig. 4. Side slope of the mountain is greater than 3 Ft. Therefore vertical slope is not advisable (Tee, H. C.
, et al. 2005). 3. Observations During the site visit after typhoon Mario, it was seen that the landslide was more or less 100 meters away from its neighboring landslide site. Along the span of 2 km, there were 34 landslides occurrences wherein 60% are minor and 40% major. It was also observed that roads with high elevated sides are more prone to landslide than those areas with lower elevation.
But this claim also depends on the vegetation of the area. An area with at most 30% tap rooted trees is more prone to landslide with loose lands masses. Fibrous roots are good at holding soil preventing soil erosion at a elatedly shallow level compared to tap rooted trees which can penetrate deep part of the soil thus making it prone to landslide during heavy rains. Furthermore, soil chemistry was observed to be slightly loose and not compact causing it to erode easily. Fig. 4 Part of the road with steep side slope causing soil erosion Fig.
5 Sedimentation of roadside down to the river page 15 of 29 Fig. 6 Part of the road showing landslide and uphill vegetation Page 16 of 29 B.
Effects of Arbitration On a macro perspective, the world has entered a new realm of foundations and pedagogies that no one might to would happen. Since the Industrial Revolution, arbitration or modernization has brought a spectra of opportunities and growth to the different aspects of life including the sciences, the arts, literature, history, economic development, population, general knowledge, the society, the environment, and the world and how it efficiently works as a system to conjoin these aspects of life and to maintain the harmonious relationship among the living and non-living forms inside the system. “By many estimates, the world has recently crossed the point where more than half the global population is urban, a trend driven by rapid Romanization In developing countries. Roan centers offer economies AT scale In terms of productive enterprise and public investment.
Cities are social melting pots, centers of innovation, and drivers of social change. However, cities are also marked by social differentiation, poverty, conflict, and environmental degradation. These are all issues that not only matter to cities, but also lie at the heart of development” (Bell et al. , 2010). Moreover, the significant effects of arbitration are highly concentrated to the claims of Bell et al.
2010 such as environmental degradation, poverty and conflict, and social differentiation. Not to mention the increased chances of corruption and other things related to arbitration.
One integral aspect though is the environment since most of the resources of every country are gathered in their immediate environment, destruction of such would lead to a significant blow in the economic development of the country which decreases the Gross Domestic Product or GAP and in turn affect ordinary citizens to the point of poverty and hunger. Page 17 of 29 Turning all these into a complex microcosm of local setting, the Philippines would be the best example for this field. The Philippines today has one of the highest rates of arbitration in the East Asian and Pacific region at roughly 53% (Karats, 2007).
Specialists in the field of arbitration may correlate this result with economic growth in a positive note. In addition, an increase in the growth of population triggers a more rapid arbitration process since there are more people to contribute to the never- ending cycle of monetary and resource needs (Karats, 2007). Because economic growth is presumably one of the more important goals of government policy, it makes little sense for policymakers and urban governments to promote growth and then attempt to stop a logical, if not natural, consequence of this Roth, which is the movement of people to cities. The wiser course of action would seem to be to adequately plan for the expected growth in population (Karats, 2007) The present situation where in the Philippines is present now is a manifestation of how our country, with its government laws acts on the booming trend of population in the country. Although there are numerous advantages of arbitration, a backlog of disadvantages counteracts these beneficial things bought by arbitration.
One important vantage point of arbitration is the environment.
The 21st century brings us to a point of inevitable dramatic changes in the landscape f the world. The past century has been marked by expansion of cities inexorable substantiation of the landscape (Walsh, 2000). Page 18 of 29 Much advancement in the field of science and technology has steered to many dimensions of the world race. Infrastructure and architectural designs has been a common indicator of developing places. A significant example would be the construction of roads primarily those of national use.
Nonetheless, there have been many studies that road development has been a major contributor of an array of Dentally Ana detrimental erects In ten environment.
Based from preliminary ocular observation of the site, Bargain Anagram Dangles, Bra was a community built on opulent resources since most of the vicinity around the bargain proper was covered with grasslands, forest, river systems, trees, huge landscape areas such as mountains and plateaus. Anagram was then a place full of trees according to the interview and there were many resources that could be gathered from the place since the bargain was then a huge forest covered with an array of flora and inhabited by native species of fauna. Anagram, being an outlying area in one of the seven Barings of Dangles, has edged most attempts of arbitration but up to now, certain aspects of arbitration and modernization is manifested not only by the people of the place but the environment that envelopes the bargain into a rich place of flora and fauna.
Although it has been indicated that there could have been many beneficial effects of arbitration, a lot of detrimental effects could outweigh even all the beneficial effects summed together. In the site, Anagram was then narrated by the bargain captain as place full of trees and other plant species that were mainly page 19 of 29 seed as foundation for houses and other facilities in the small community.
As the population of the bargain continues to grow, more resources were then extracted from the environment to compensate for the growing population of Anagram. Based from a 2007 census, the small community of Anagram grew into 800 people who now inhabit the place and is now utilizing things from the environment. Most people from the place depend on the resources that the environment provides.
Food, shelter and livelihood are some of the needs of the people in Anagram that are provided by nature. It may be inferred that if the population of the Anagram entities to expand then resources that are available in the environment will be used up eventually. A concept in Ecology states that when resources become limiting for the population; the immediate population may suffer consequences since these resources are needed for bodily functions and life sustenance.
From the community immersion and field visit that was done in the bargain, it was observed that the area showed ecological richness in terms of plants that were growing in the site.
Trees were abundant on some parts of the mountain but there were parts considered denuded at the unaided eye. These denuded parts of mountain sides could have been a part of the area of trees that were cut down for the road construction near the vicinity of the bargain and adjacent mountainsides. The national road that connects Bra and ‘locos Norte via Uneven Era was constructed primarily to lessen the travel time from Bra to ‘locos Norte. This in page 20 of 29 effect would be correlated to faster transport of goods and commodities and lesser transportations costs and time.
But taking in to consideration the construction of the road, most of the resources in the environment were used up, disturbed, or