Student Study Section
STUDENT STUDY SECTION Review questions Study the timeline above and then read the following quotation. The nation that political problems could more naturally be solved by violence than by debate was firmly entrenched in a country in which for a thousand years civil war has been if not exactly the norm then certainly no rarity. From Paul Preton, The Spanish Civil War: Reaction, Revolution and Revenge, 2006 1.
Looking at the timeline above showing events in Spain in the 19th and early 20th centuries, what evidence is there for Preston’s argument? 2.
What factors were causing tension in Spain during this time? (Economic, military, religious, political? ) 3. What example of foreign intervention was there in Spain in the 29th century? STUDENT STUDY SECTION Review questions 1. Draw a mind map or spider diagram of the key issues dividing Spain by 1931 2. Explain the events that led to the fall of Kind Alfonso in 1931.
3. Looking at the long-term issues in Spain and the political events of the 19th century, what problems was the Second Republic likely to face? Do you consider that war was inevitable by mid 1931? STUDENT STUDY SECTION
Review questions How did the actions of the Second republic create more tension? In what way did they, in Paul Preston’s words, ensure that Spain’s underlying conflicts ere transmitted into national politics? STUDENT STUDY SECTION Research activity Research the Asturian miner’ uprising of 1934. In Paris, discuss the extent to which you agree that this was an attempted revolution. STUDENT STUDY SECTION Review questions 1. To what extent did economic issues lead to a civil war? 2.
What was the impact of international events to the growing divisions in Spain Class debate
Divide the class into three groups. Each group needs to argue one of the following: * The right wing was responsible for the Spanish Civil War * The left wing was responsible for the Spanish Civil War * Both left and right were equally responsible for the Spanish Civil War STUDENT STUDY SECTION Review activity Look back at the timeline on pp. 235-36. Identify key points where foreign intervention plays a significant role in the fighting. STUDENT STUDY SECTION Document analysis
What civisms does Salvodo make of the Non-intervention Committee (p. 238)? Research activity In small group, research the different countries, groups and famous individuals that went to Spain to fight in the international Brigades; for example, the Abraham Lincoln Brigade from USA.
STUDENT STUDY SECTION Review activities Summarize the key points made in the text in grid: | Nationalists | Republicans | Political strengths/weaknesses| | | Military strengths/weaknesses| | | Economic advantages/ Disadvantages| | | Foreign assistance| | | Class debate Divide the class into two groups.
One side will argue that the Nationalists’ strengths won the Spanish Civil War, the other will argue that it was due to Republican weaknesses. The motion is: The strengths of the Nationalists won the Civil War. Each side must have a series of thematic and coherent arguments. To gain a point, they have to support arguments with clear evidence. STUDENT STUDY SECTION Read the following sources and answer the questions: Document A The nationalists maintained that Guernical had been blown up by the Basques themselves, in order to discredit the blameless Nationalists.
A later version said that Republican planes dropped bomb to detonate charges dynamite placed in the sewers. Twenty years later it was still a crime in Franco’s Spain to say that Guernical had been destroyed by the Nationalists. Document B Our consciences were uneasy about it. After living through the raid we knew only too well that the destruction had come from the air. The Reds had hardly any planes, we knew that too. Amongst our own, we’d admit the truth: our side had bombed the town and it was a bad thing.
But what can we do about it now? We’d say. It was simply better to keep quite.
From a statement by Juan Sangroniz, a Nationalists, quoted in Ronald Fraser, Blood of Spain Document C The Germans said the wind caused the bombes to drift eastwards [the target had been a bridge on the river]. In fact Guernica was a military target, being a communications centre close to the line. Retreating republican soldiers could only escape with any ease through Guernical because the bridge over the river was the last one before the sea. But if the aim of the Condor Legion was destroy the bridge why did they not use their supremely accurate stuka bombers?
At least part to aim must have been to cause maximum panic and confusion among civilians as well as soldier.
The use of incendiary bombs proves that some destruction of buildings and people other than it bridge must have been intended From Hugh Thomas, The Spanish Civil War, 1977 Questions 1. In what ways are the views expressed in Document A supported by the views in Document B 2. What reasons are identified in Document C for the bombing of Guernica? STUDENT STUDY SECTION Essay work Planning essay in an essential way to revise topics as you approach examinations. In pairs or groups, plan out the essays below.
Your plan should include: * An introduction written out in full * The opening sentence for each paragraph setting out your ‘topic’ * Bullet points setting out the evidence to go in each paragraph * A conclusion written out in full Each group should present it essay plan to the rest of the class.
How much overlap of content is three between the different essay plans? Some hints are given for your planning in the first 3 essays Essay 1 Analyze the causes of the Spain Civil War. You could structure this essay thematically, and consider the key issues in the long term and the short term.
Your analysis should then explain why there was tension that intensified over time. Remember to include the ‘trigger’ of the civil war, as this explains why the war broke out when it did. * Themes: 1898-1931 –Economic/Social/Polical/Empire * Themes:1931-36 –Land reforms/Church reforms/Social unrest /Reaction of right/Popular Front * Trigger:1936 –The attempted coup. Essays 2 What were the key effects of the Spanish Civil War? You might want to include material from this chapter on the ‘nature’ of the war in this essay, as well as focusing on the more general results.
It might be helpful for you to structure your essay in two parts: effects of the war internally on Spain, and then effects of the war external on the other countries. Remember to attempt to adopt a thematic approach. Essay 3 What was the impact of foreign intervention in the Spain Civil War? You could discuss this question in terms of how the ‘nature’ of the war was affected by foreign intervention: * Polarizing the complex political divisions in Spain * Increasing the brutality and casualty rate * Protracting the war. You could then discuss this question in terms of how the ‘outcome’ of the war was affected by foreign intervention” * Germany/Italy/Portugal: Strengthening the military capabilities of the Nationalists * USSR: Weakening the political unity of the Republic, and then undermining its ability to wage war by withdrawing support * NIC and Neutrals benefited the Nationalists Now attempt to make detailed plans for the following essay questions: * In what ways and to what extent, did social and religious divisions lead to war in Spain in 1936? * To what extent was the Spanish Civil War caused by division in Spain and in Spain society? Assess the impact of political and constitutional developments in Spain between 1930 and 1939 * Why did the Constitutional Monarchy in Spain collapse in 1931? * Carlism is a political movement in Spain that looks to establish a separate line of the Bourbon family on the Spanish throne. This line is descended from Carlos V ( 1788-1855).
* The Civil Guard was founded in 1844. Its purpose was to control the peasantry, maintain the status quo and stamp out any anti-monarchist, revolutionary sentiment. It was particularly active in the Basque Provinces and was hated by the peasantry.
It was later to play a role in supporting the conservative downers in resisting the reforms of the Second Republic. * The destabilization of the Spanish electoral system is the worth nothing that the Spain electoral system ensured that only a small swing in the number of votes cast had a huge effect on the parliamentary system. Thus, although there was only a minor shift of votes from the left to the right, there was a big change in parliamentary power.
The same was ro happen in 1926 when the Popular front gained control. The instability created by the electoral system was a contributory factor to the breakdown of the Second Republic.