Student Voices in the Implementation of Health and Life Skills
Policy is being implemented in Teacher Training Colleges in Zombie to strengthen the sexual reproductive health rights of college students. The Policy was developed to protect the rights of students to access health services. The multiple case study conducted among 3rd year students from 7 Primary and 2 Secondary School Teacher Training Colleges from 2012 to 2014, revealed lack of compliance with policy provisions which undermined the rights of the students to provision of health services.
Students’ lack of awareness to the policy provisions enshrined in the Policy, eke the right of students to access information on health services, voluntary confidential HIVE counseling and testing, access to treatment, condom provision, antiterrorism therapy and family planning, made it difficult for students to have a voice to demand for their rights. Hence students’ health was negatively affected resulting in unprotected sex, sexual abuse and acquiring sexually transmitted infections including HIVE and AIDS.
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Effective Health and Lifestyles Policy implementation is essential to prevent negative social behavior. Keywords: Health and Lifestyles, Policy, Student voices, Sexual Reproductive Health Rights, Negative Social Behavior. Introduction The study is an analysis the implementation of the Health and Lifelessness’s for students in Teacher Training Colleges in Zombie from the student’ perspective.
The problems related to sexual and reproductive health of college students has increased over the past years and in the face of negative social behavior like prostitution, alcohol and drug abuse among others leading to HIVE and AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases. Students are confronted with harsh realities of life at the colleges as most parents cannot provide the basics for their children due to the harsh economic climate; hence some of the students resort to risky activities to earn a living.
The government, through the Ministry of Higher and Tertiary Education developed Health and Lifestyles Policy to protect the rights of college students within the Teacher Training Colleges and to address the threat of HIVE and AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases as well as equipping the students with survival skills to cope with college solitary life. Mucous states that Health and Lifestyles dates back to 1990 as the subject was taught as HIVE&AIDS, but faced a lot of negative criticism room curriculum influences like church organizations, parents and teachers.
This is because in Zombie culture, it is a taboo to discuss sexual matters in public. Religious organizations on the other hand opposed the idea of teaching and learning about HIVE and AIDS related issues as they were seen as contradicting bible teachings about sex in marriage, hence teaching the use of condoms and other sexual activities outside wedlock 25 Corresponding Author: Priscilla Muumuus, PhD Scholar Christ University, Bangor, India. T he I enter nation anal Asian Research Joe our anal 0 2 (03) : up. 5 -33, 2014 population was imposed of 3rd year exit students from 7 Teacher Training Colleges which prepare students for teaching in both primary and secondary schools.
The college intakes were different based on the size of the college, hence the samples of the students were also proportional to the size of the intake. This group was selected realizing that they are at the point of exiting the colleges after exposure to all the education on health and Lifestyles.
The student sample was selected using the convenient sampling method. Questionnaires were distributed to a total of 900 students and 16 focus group discussions were done (two ere college – one with a group of women and the other with a group of men). This enabled the students to be as open as possible without the element of shame or fear of ridicule. The findings in this article include issues that were raised through the focus group discussions and the questionnaires.
Was found to be immoral practice which was totally unacceptable.
Teachers as curriculum implementers regarded teaching of HIVE and AIDS alone as not enough for behavioral change towards reducing the spread of HIVE in the Zimmermann Society. Therefore the curriculum designers complied with the needs and expectations of the society to widen and change the subject to Health and Lifestyles. Rousseau(1712 – 1778), the pioneer of child education, advocates that children must learn from their immediate environment and should be aware of all community issues and learn how to solve community challenges through embarking on community projects.
This led to the birth of Health and Lifestyles.
The study analyzed the effectiveness of the implementation of the Health and Lifestyles policy in colleges in relation to students’ sexual and reproductive health, more than 6 years after it was developed. According to the Zombie Demographic and Health Survey (2010 – 2011) , the age at first sexual intercourse can be used as a proxy to the beginning of exposure to the risk of pregnancy. The median age at first sexual intercourse for women aged 25 – 49 is 18. 9 years while for men of the same age group is 20. 6 years.
By age of 20, about six in ten Zimmermann women have had sexual intercourse while men exhibit a slightly older median age of 20.
Areas. This age range is the age group in which the college students fall into. Sexuality education activities are guided by the Sexual Reproductive Health (2010 – 201 which offers three approaches to addressing SIR issues of young people – health facility based approach; school based approach and community based approach. In Zimmermann schools, health and Lifestyles education is compulsory in all primary and secondary schools and tertiary institutions, and HIVE and AIDS is integrated into relevant subjects.
The research questions guiding this study focused on the extent to which the Health and Lifestyles policy is being implemented in Teacher Training Colleges; what HIVE/AIDS services are being provided to pre-service teachers; the constraints faced y the teacher training institutions to implement the Health and Lifestyles Policy and how these can be overcome to strengthen teacher training and better prepare teachers to deliver effective Health and Lifestyles education.
1 . Methodology: The multiple case study design was used for this study between 2012 and 2014.
The study THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The study was based on the constructivist theoretical framework which focuses on the shift from the teacher to the students. The concept of constructivism has roots in classical antiquity, going back to Socrates dialogues with his followers, in which he asked directed questions that led his students to realize for themselves the weaknesses in their thinking. The Socratic dialogue is still an important tool in the way constructivist educators assess their students’ learning and plan new learning experiences.
In the constructivist model, the students are urged to be actively involved in their own process of learning. The teacher functions more as a facilitator who coaches, mediates, prompts, and helps students develop and assess their understanding, and thereby their learning. One of the teacher’s biggest Jobs becomes asking good questions. Both teacher and students think of knowledge not as inert factoids to be memorized, but as a dynamic, ever-changing view of the world we live in and the ability to successfully stretch and explore that view. Curriculum emphasizes big concepts, beginning with the whole and expanding to include the parts.
Pursuit of student questions and interests is valued. Materials include primary sources of material and manipulative materials. Teacher’s role is interactive, rooted in negotiation. Assessment includes student works, observations, and points of view, as well as tests. Process is as important as product. Knowledge is seen as dynamic, ever changing with our experiences.
26 T he I enter nation anal Asian Research Joe our anal 0 2 (03) : up. 25 -33, 2014 Students work primarily in groups. Constructivist teachers pose questions and problems, then guide students to help them find their own answers.
They use many techniques in the teaching process. For example, they may: 0 prompt students to formulate their own questions (inquiry) 0 allow multiple interpretations and expressions of learning (multiple intelligences) 0 encourage group work and the use of peers as resources (collaborative learning) he respective schools that they will be expected to go to. Constructivism relies heavily on collaboration among students hence the importance of involving them in Health and Lifestyles Policy formulation and drafting implementation strategies.
There are many reasons why collaboration contributes to learning.
The main reason it is that students learn about learning not only from themselves, but also from their peers. When students review and reflect on their learning processes together, they can pick up strategies and methods from one another, hence introduction of peer education in Health and Lifestyles education. The main activity in a constructivist classroom is solving problems. Students use inquiry methods to ask questions, investigate a topic, and use a variety of resources to find solutions and answers. As students explore the topic, they draw conclusions, and, as exploration continues, they revisit those conclusions.
Exploration of questions leads to more questions. Constructivist teaching takes into account students’ current conceptions and builds from there. What happens when a student gets a new piece of information? The constructivist model says that the student compares the information to the knowledge and understanding he/she already has, and one of three things can occur: 0 The new information matches up with his previous knowledge pretty well (it’s consonant with the previous knowledge), so the student adds it to his understanding.
It may take some work, but it’s Just a matter of finding the right fit, as with a puzzle piece. 0 The information doesn’t match previous knowledge (it’s dissonant).
The student has to change her previous understanding to find a fit for the information. This can be harder work. 0 The information doesn’t match previous knowledge, and it is ignored. Rejected bits of information may Just not be absorbed by the student. Or they may float around, waiting for the day when the student’s understanding has developed and permits a fit.
What are the benefits of constructivism? Children learn more, and enjoy learning more when they are actively involved, rather than passive listeners. 0 Education works best when it concentrates on thinking and understanding, rather than on rote It is important to realize that the constructivist approach borrows from many other practices in the pursuit of its primary goal: helping students learn how to learn. Students are not blank slates upon which knowledge is etched. They come to learning situations with already formulated knowledge, ideas, and understandings.
This previous knowledge is the raw material for the new knowledge they will create.
The student is the person who creates new understanding for him/herself. The teacher coaches, moderates, suggests, but allows the students room to experiment, ask questions, try things that don’t work. Learning activities require the students’ full participation (like hands-on experiments). An important part of the learning process is that students reflect on, and talk about, their activities. Students also help set their own goals and means of assessment.
Examples: In Health and Lifestyles education, asking students to read and think about different versions of and perspectives on HIVE and AIDS can lead to interesting discussions. Is HIVE and AIDS as taught in textbooks accurate? Are there different versions of the same problem? Whose version of the origin of HIVE is most accurate? How do we know? From there, students can make their own judgments, control their own learning process, and lead the way by reflecting on their experiences. This process makes them experts of their own learning.
The teacher elapse create situations where the students feel safe questioning and reflecting on their own processes, either privately or in group discussions. The teacher should also create activities that lead the student to reflect on his or her prior knowledge and experiences.
Talking about what was learned and how it was learned is really important. College students will be expected to be creative when they leave college to teach pupils in 27 T he I enter nation anal Asian Research Joe our anal 0 2 (03) : up. 25 -33, 2014 memorization.
Constructivism concentrates on learning how to think and understand. Constructivist learning is transferable. In constructivist classrooms, students create organizing principles that they can take with them to other learning settings.
Constructivism gives students ownership of what they learn, since learning is based on students’ questions and explorations, and often the students have a hand in designing the assessments as well. Constructivist assessment engages the students’ initiatives and personal investments in their journals, research reports, physical models, and artistic representations.
Engaging the creative instincts develops students’ abilities to express knowledge through a variety of ways. The students re also more likely to retain and transfer the new knowledge to real life. By grounding learning activities in an authentic, real-world context, constructivism stimulates and engages students. Students in constructivist classrooms learn to question things and to apply their natural curiosity to the world.
Constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas.
Students must learn how to articulate their ideas clearly as well as to collaborate on tasks effectively by sharing in group projects. Students must therefore exchange ideas ND so must learn to “negotiate” with others and to evaluate their contributions in a socially acceptable manner. This is essential to success in the real world, since they will always be exposed to a variety of experiences in which they will have to cooperate and navigate among the ideas of others. 2. Health and Lifestyles Policy position: The findings showed that the Government developed an Education Sector Wide Health and Lifestyles Policy to guide colleges in implementing the Health and Lifestyles Policy to protect the rights of students’ sexual and reproductive health.
Other colleges also developed their own college specific Health and Lifestyles Policies to respond to their college issues. In addition the Adolescent Reproductive Health Strategy (CARS) 2010 – 201 5 was developed to guide the Mock’s efforts in providing quality, affordable and appropriate sexual and reproductive health services to young people in Zombie.
Policy development is a positive step in ensuring that there is a framework of implementing activities. In this study, the Health and Lifestyles was developed but not all students were aware of the existence of the policy which then ultimately affects utilization in the policy provisions. Literature indicates the importance of having an HIVE and AIDS policy (Dyke, 2004; Sara, 2006) Responses on knowledge of students on existence of the policy indicated that only 65% of the respondents were aware of the policy provisions.
Of those students 45% confirmed lack of access to the policy documents since they were kept by the Health and Lifestyles Lecturers and not necessarily accessible to the students as and when they needed them.
The only time the students got to know about the policy was through briefings by the Health and Lifestyles Lecturers during orientation meetings and at workshops.. This finding supports the Zombie Open University baseline study (which found that students and Lecturers were not aware of the HIVE and AIDS policy within the institution.
The objectives of having an HIVE and AIDS policy in institutions are given by literature as to reduce stigma and discrimination associated with HIVE and AIDS, create supportive environment of compassion and understanding for students and Lecturer with HIVE and related illnesses; ensure that all students and staff members are treated equally whenever they are infected or not by HIVE; provide all students and staff with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the issues related to HIVE infections and AIDS; ensure that institutions or organizations provide prevention, care and support services to staff and students, to reduce personal, family and organizational impact of HIVE and AIDS and promote shared confidentiality among staff and students (University of Port Harcourt: 2007) 2. Findings: Health and Lifestyles implementation utilizes the constructivist paradigm. Findings presented in this study were based on the analysis of findings from data collected from students in the 7 Teacher Training Colleges and the focus group discussions.
The discussions focused on the voice of young people