Why We Communicate-needs are met Affiliation- the affect or feelings you have for others. Achieving Goals-rely on communication in order to accomplish particular objectives Influencing Others-completely unintentional Transactional Process-Involves 2 or more people acting in both sender and receiver roles, and their messages are dependent on and influenced by those of their partner (that is their messages are interdependent). Once a communication transaction has been completed and received it can’t be reversed nor repeated in precisely the same way.
Ethics-study of morals specifically the moral choices individuals make in their relationships with others. Competent Communication is Process-oriented?what & how Competent Communication involves-communication skills & using technology CHIP Challenges of Schemas & Perception-Mindlessness, Selective Perception,& Undue Influence Read page-42 Improving Your Perceptions Mindlessness- A passive state in which the communicator is a less critical processor of info, characterized by reduced cognitive activity, inaccurate recall and uncritical evaluation.
Stereotyping- act of fitting individuals into an existing schema w/out adjusting the schema appropriately; involves organizing info about groups of Pl into categories so that you can generalize about their attitudes, behaviors, skills, morals, and habits.
Prejudice- a deep seated feeling of unkindness and ill will toward particular groups, based on Eng. Stereotypes and feeling of superiority over those groups. Self-Concept= Your awareness and understanding of who you are as interpreted and influences by your thoughts, actions, abilities, values, goals, and ideals.
Self-Esteem= how you feel about yourself. Self-Efficacy’= Ability to predict actual success from self-concept and self-esteem CHIP Connotative-emotional or attitudinal response Pl have to it Evasion- Intentionally failing to provide specific details Equivocation-Using words that have unclear or misleading definitions.
Euphemism- An inoffensive word or phrase that substitutes fro terms that might be perceived as upsetting.
Jargon-Technical language that is specific to members of a particular profession, interest group or hobby. Slang- Language that is informal, nonstandard, and usually particular to a specific group. Semantics- The study of the relationship among symbol, objects, people, and concepts; refers to the meaning that words have or Pl, either because of their definitions or because of their placement in a sentences structure. Pragmatics-The ability to use the symbol systems of a culture appropriately.
CHIP How the Functions of nonverbal communication-Reinforcing, substituting, contradicting, regulating interactions creating immediacy, deceiving others. Substituting-Replacing words with nonverbal cues. Repeating-Nonverbal behavior that offers a clear nonverbal cue that repeats and mirrors the verbal message. 5 Main Categories of Body Movements-Emblems, illustrators, regulators, adaptors, affect displays Emblem-Movements and gestures hat have a direct verbal translation in a particular group or culture.
Eye Behavior in Communication- Oculists-Study of the use of eyes to communicate.
Spatial Zones Identified By Edward Hall- Situational Context of Communication Nonverbally- Public-Private Dimension= An aspect of the situational context of communication dealing w/ the physical space that affects our nonverbal communication. Read peg 128 Nonverbal Behavior Is Communicative Masking- Facial management technique in which an expression that shows true feeling is replaced w/ an expression that shoes appropriate feeling for a given interaction. CHIP
Listening Process-selecting, attending, understanding, remembering, responding Selecting-The step in the listening process of choosing one sound over another when faced with competing stimuli. Informational Listening-process & accurately understanding a message, comprehensive listening. Critical Listening-evaluating or analyzing info, evidence, ideas or opinions, evaluative listening Empathic Listening- Listening to Pl w/ openness, sensitivity & caring, attempting to know how another person feels Appreciative Listening-listening w/ the simple goal of taking pleasure in the sounds that one receives Listening Challenges That Exist-A. D.
D & auditory processing disorder Multitasking-attending to several things at once Selective Listening-listening that involves zeroing in only on bits of info that interest the listener, disregarding other messages or parts of messages Selfish Listening- listen to their own needs or even for their own unethical purposes Hurtful Listening- focuses on self but it’s a bit more direct, perhaps even more unethical Pseudo Listening-pretending to listen by nodding or saying “uh-huh” when not really paying attention Insensitive Listening-when we fail to pay attention to the emotional content f someone’s message, instead taking it at face value Hearing- physiological process of perceiving sound Listening-process of recognizing, understandings, accurately interpreting & responding effectively to the messages you hear People-oriented Listeners-listen w/ relationship in mind Action-oriented Listeners-focused on tasks, organize info they hear into concise & relevant themes Content-oriented Listeners-critical listeners who carefully evaluate what they hear Time Oriented Listeners-concerned w/ efficiency; prefer info that is clear & to the point & have little patience for speakers who talk too much or wander off topic CHIP Types of Interpersonal Relationships-family, friends, online Interpersonal relationship-interconnections & interdependence between two individuals Why we form relationships? Achieving Goals- Concepts of Social Exchange of Cost and Benefits- Uncertainly Reduction Theory-when 2 Pl meet, their main focus is on decreasing the uncertainly about EAI other Relational Dialectics Theory-dialectical tensions are contradictory feeling that tug at us in every relationship Social Penetration Theory- explains how partners move from superficial levels to greater intimacy Reducing Uncertainty Theory- obtain info about your new relational partner Monitoring
Strategies- Proactive Strategies- Indirect Strategies- Direct Questioning Concepts- Active Strategies-obtain info about a person more directly by seeking into from 3rd party Stages of Relationship-peg 208 Intensification Stage-relationship is one in which you make contact w/ another person CHIP Differences between The Communication Climates- Uncertain-at least one of the Pl involved is unclear, vague, tentative & awkward about goals, expectations, & potential outcomes of the conflict situation Defensive-Pl involved feel threatened Supportive-ideal because they offer communicators a chance to honestly & inconsiderately explore the issues involved in the conflict situation Strategies for Managing Conflict- Escapist-Pl try to prevent or avoid direct conflict Challenging-promote the objectives of the individual who uses them, rather than the desires of the other person or relationship Cooperative-strategies that between the relationships serve mutual rather than individual goals & strive to produce solutions that benefit both parties Different Conflict Outcomes-compromise, win-win, lose-lose, separation, allocation of power Separation-removing oneself from a conflicted situation or relationship