The orchestra’s pay structure in terms

1. Describe the orchestra’s pay structure in terms of levels,differentials and Job or person base approach

There is a lot of information is lacking in the orchestra case which make it difficult to draw the persuasive conclusions about the Orchestra compensation strategy. Let’s assume that internal and external factors are normal and the orchestra is operating their business under favorable circumstances. Under these circumstances, the orchestra pay structure is hierarchical, narrowly graded, vertical and horizontal, broad band pay, and supervisory The pay structure possess different characteristics, Hereford It Is Important that I should explore all possible pay structure models from where these are drawn. I believe that pay structure is not single integrated pay model or egalitarian. The pay structure is not a single integrated pay model if all employees are given equal salary.

In the orchestra, the employees are rewarded according the position In the hierarchical pay structure and there are different families within that pay structure which are also awarded different pay levels. Issue Is whether It Is beneficial for the organization, like orchestra, not to have integral pay model. I think that a single integrated pay model shall be beneficial for the orchestra for the numbers of reasons. First and foremost, the musicians’ functions are considerably varied from each other and there are different skills, abilities, and knowledge required for operating deferent musical Instruments.

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Secondly, In my opinion, if the entire orchestra Is structured on a single pay model, It shall affect employees’ performance and motivation.

I believe that the orchestra pay structure is a narrowly graded. The narrowed graded pay structure is that where the single structure is divided into various families. In the orchestra, the single structure is divided into various families I. E. Principal voila, principal violin l, II, Ill etc.

The advantage of these families are that It provides the career path to the employees.

The orchestra's pay structure in terms Case Study

Quietest arises whether the single Integrated structures divided in different families are the effective method of human resources management. I think that the different families’ pay structure within a single- structured organization can facilitate training, supervision and it can also motivate the employees how they can achieve career goals. The orchestra pay structure Is also horizontal and vertical.

In the case of the rational pay structure, the tier 1 principals’ pay structure Is closed drawn while In the vertical structure, there is a degree of disparity between different pay levels.

Interesting, the orchestra, the horizontal pay structure is also hierarchical. There are the tier 1 supervisors or professionals, and below them, there are different tiers of employees belongs to different families. In the horizontal structure, the pay model is narrowly structured while in vertical structure; deference in pay levels could be due The Orchestra pay structure is also a broad band pay structure and built on market relativities. In broad band pay structure, employees are paid according to the market demand of their skills for the organization.

In the orchestra, we do not have the information about it but if I assume that other factors are normal, and then the employees are being paid according to their demand of Asks in the market. The organization takes into consideration various factors including knowledge, skill, and abilities to build pay structure. The orchestra recruitment talent and skilled people and there is only one possible way to retain these types of employees to give them good pay. Gerhard & Runes state that the strongest factor that keeps the employee not to change the employer is their satisfaction with the pay level.

It difficult to conclude whether the orchestra pay model is competitive unless we have information about their competitors. In some instances, it looks that the orchestra pay structure is more like person-based rather than based Asks structure .

I. E. Lowest paid the violin II receives less than half of the pay of the highest paid the violin II. I cannot predict exactly why it so, unless I have information the Asks of each employee. Finally, the orchestra pay structure is designed on the principles of supervision.

In he supervisory structure employees is supervised by the leader in order to ensure the performance of the subordinate employees. I believe that the structure is effective where the employers are conscious about their reputation in the market and the quality of their services. The supervisors are given higher salary due to the nature of their duties while subordinate employees are ranked according to their experience level. In short, the orchestra pay structure is designed on the combinations of various pay models.

2. Discuss what factors may explain the structure.

Why does violinist I receive more Han the oboist and trombonist ? Why does the principal trumpet player earn more than the principal cellist and principal clarinetist but less than the principal viola and principal flute players? What explains these differences ? Does the relative supply versus the demand for violinist compare to the supply versus the demand for trombonists? Is it that violins play more notes?

The factors may explain the structure to determine of employee’s pay is difficulty of work and their responsibility. Other than that, factors that can influence pay level is kind of Occupation and working condition. According to Miltonic, Newman & Barry internal alignment or internal equity explain about pay relationship and different Job, skills and competencies in the organization. Issue on the case study refer to different payment among musicians. This is because the music expert have more responsibility to play the difficult instrument such as, Principal of viola that have more responsibility.

For example to make sure the smoothly of event, training their subordinate, supervision, hiring, coordinating and other Job including working condition that may influence the payment structure. Question about violinist I receive more than the oboist and trombonist will explain about work difficulty factor. This is because people that play and trombonist. Maybe the violist have a good performance during work and doing perfect Job based on their mentally and physically focus.

Other than that, implement a Job with commitment and committed also be a factors why violinist get different payment compared with oboist and trombonist.

According to Miltonic, economic condition can be a factor why violinist get more payment. Maybe on the music market there not have enough the people can play the violin and that have a legislation between skill and competency. This is can make violinist get a high payment than other musician. Organization always coordinates and maintain different level of pay among employees known as differentials.

Refer to Miltonic Job which require more Asks and working in the uncomfortable work condition must be paid more.

This is because principal trumpets player get more pay than the principal cellist and principal clarinetist based on the different group of work and because principal trumpet responsibility to playing music such as, training, supervision, coordination impaired with principal trombonist which Just supervising their trombonist different with principal cellist which supervising 2 cello employees.

Caused by the reasons, supervisors get higher pay based on their responsibility and work difficulty. Educational factors also influence the pay level because of market demand, skills or quality of work performance can be a reasons why principal viola and principal flute get more pay compared them. Pay structure are according the relative marketability based on the demand in the Job market. Normal pay structure will make employer pay their employees based on the Asks.

But in economic aspect is different because don’t have a information about musician ASK and the information Just based on the job title.

For example, violinist get more pay compared the trombonist and oboist because the violinist demand in the market more higher than other musician demand. Therefore, external factors can influence the employees payment. The reason why orchestra pay more salary to violins not based on the note they play, but the factors is because the violins work hard, giving more commitment, focus with their Jodi compared with other musician. Normally, employer will give the reward to heir employees based on the employees performance and Job quality.

Maybe violins play more note than others. Based on the reasons given, pay structure not balanced among musician because its depends on their responsibility, work difficulty , performance and etc.

3. What is the pay differential between the principal viola and next highest paid viola? What about between the principal trumpet and the next highest paid trumpet? Principal viola – viola = $5036 – $2483 Principal trumpet – trumpet = $4233 – $3638 = $595 Why these differentials between the principal and other? Why aren’t they larger? Smaller? Why is the differential between trumpet players different than between the viola players?

Principal viola and principal trumpet gets highest paid than other because the principal usually have higher qualification. This is suitable with their role as a leader or supervisor for their section that they have to lead others while doing training or performance.

Principal have higher qualification and achievement that are more quality than others. The Job descriptions of principal are broader and surely higher qualification is needed for employee in that position.

The qualification can influence the position of the worker in a single organization. The higher the qualification, probably the higher position they can be and the more pay they can earn. Other position might have lower qualification that limits their scope of work. This mean, employer will paid equivalent with employee qualification.

Besides, the differential between principal and other players also because of levels of the musicians. The levels of principal in hierarchy context are higher than viola and trumpet player. This also one of the reasons why the pay of principal are more than others.

Then, employer pays the employee due to their knowledge, skills, and abilities. The organization takes into consideration in various factor when decide how much they want to pay to the employee. In this case, principal needs more complicated Asks.

Employer might set higher Asks for principal like have more experience, skills and abilities in music compare to viola and trumpet player. Other than that, principal gets highest pay because they have more complexity of work, amount of responsibilities and the type of work performed.

The principle might be performing more function, demonstrates correct musical responses to instruction from the conductor, sets the best possible example of respectful behavior and attitude toward those in authority, works well with the other Principal players and Concertmaster to form a team of musical leaders for the large ensemble, works well as co-leader with the Section Leader and many more. While, viola and trumpet player have less responsibility than principal. So, the pay given is appropriate with their Job duties.

The complexity of Job duties influenced the pay given to the employee. Then, differential between trumpet players different than between the viola players because both come from different tiers of employees that belongs to different families. The musicians’ functions also are considerably varied from each other. There are different skills, abilities, and knowledge in different part. Playing trumpet could be more technical and complicated than playing viola like playing more notes. It could also be due to the quality of work performed by the trumpet player as comparison to the viola player.

As a matter of general practice, the organization rewards those employee who perform technical, hardworking, or time consuming Job. For an example the notes probably more hard to learn and play. Perhaps it might also because of the complexity of the tasks. The content and value of trumpet player maybe more worth of the work and its contribution to the orchestra. Any role? What about institutional theory? Equity theory is a theory that attempts to explain relational satisfaction in terms of perceptions of fair/unfair distributions of resources within interpersonal relationships.

According to Miltonic, Newman & Barry, the Equity theory, the employee Judges the fairness by three making multiple comparisons.

The multiple comparisons is comparing to Job similar to own, comparing their Job to others at the same employer and comparing their Job’s pay against external pay levels. In orchestra case, the pay structure is not equally balanced among various employees. For example violin, viola, trombone, cello etc. The different pay structure is seen not unfair because the payment vary. But the fairness is Judged accordance how much the organization pay structure is aligned with the similar employees.

According to the equitable theory, there should be fairness in compensation in such a way that all employees should be paid in regards with input and output produced by employees such as Asks, commitment, performance, tolerance, hard work and responsibility.

Next, the other issue is how orchestra can impose autocratic rule on the talent and skilled people to remain in the organization if there is no equity in the orchestra in their pay level? The big difference between executive pay can cause workers out ahead of the organization.

Refer on cases exhibit, there is substantial difference in the pay levels of the principals and according to the study quoted by authors that there are twice as many chances that these executives may quit the Jobs because of their difference in their pay levels. According in this case, “Peter Trucker wants to hear what he wants to hear ND other called the orchestra as an autocratic”. That mean, the orchestra don’t care about the personal feelings of employees about the uneven pay levels and may have resulted in frequent change of staff even not specified in the recruitment and turnover issue.

Tournament theory is useful for describing behavior when reward structures are based on relative rank rather than absolute levels of output.

Tournament theory is the theory in personnel economics used to describe certain situations where wage differences are based not on marginal productivity but instead upon relative differences between the individual. So, according to Miltonic, Newman & Barry, the tournament theory is focus about motivation and performance in employees. The theory suggests that increasing pay and promotion enhance the performance of the employees and reduce the absenteeism.

According in this case, the different hierarchy in pay structure in a level can made the employee in orchestra more motivation to work harder to reach upper income level, advance their career and earn more money. Besides that, another issue is whether there is any correlation between Job satisfaction and motivation in order to apply the attestation levels at the orchestra are ranked below the prison guards and the orchestra employees are more satisfied than the operating room nurses and hockey players.

According to study, there is a positive correlation between the employee satisfaction level and motivation. If that correlation exists among the employees of orchestra then we can conclude tournament theory is applicable because the tournament theory stresses the need for motivation to advance the employee performance. Therefore, the compensation model of the tournament theory is directly applicable to the orchestra. Institutional theory sees firms as responding/ conforming to normative pressures in their environments so as to gain legitimacy and reduce risk.

According, institutional theory attend to the deeper and more resilient aspect of social structure. It considers the processes by which structures, including schemas, rules, norms, and routines, become established as authoritative guidelines for social behavior.

It inquiries into how these elements are created, diffused, adopted, and adapted over space and time; and how they fall into decline and disuse. Although the ostensible subject is stability and order in social life, students of institutions must perforce attend not Just to consensus and conformity but to conflict and change in social structures.