The Case of Mrs.Riley

The instructor should verbalize each step in the chain as it is being completed, and should be followed by praise for a Job Nell done (1). Simply saying, behavioral chaining is breaking a task or Job down into smaller steps. Primary reinforcement is often called unconditional reinforcement that occurs naturally and does not require learning in order to work. Often primary reinforces have a basis of evolution because they aid in species survival.

Some examples would be food, air, sleep, and water.

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This would work in behavior chaining cause for some people certain things come naturally. If Brenda has one area of tennis that comes naturally to her, such as making contact with the ball, the behaviorism can use that to help in making the other areas better (2). Secondary reinforcement is also known as conditioned reinforcement and involves stimuli that has become rewarding by being paired with another reinforcing stimulus. In this case, when Brenda is training, something positive (such as praise) could be used as a primary reinforce.

A sound or a word could be used and associated with the praise ND after a period of time, Brenda would hear the word and it would begin to work as secondary reinforce. This is the same concept as operant conditioning. In situations En the presentation of reinforcement is controlled, such as during training, the timing of when a reinforce is presented can objectionable. During the early stages of learning, continuous reinforcement is often used. This program involves reinforcing a response each and every time it occurs (2).

To help Brenda master the components of behavioral chaining, the behaviorism should consider strategies for independent use f prompts by learners.

The behaviorism should teach the units in the proper sequence, and can use fading procedures to decrease extra help that may be needed. If behavioral chaining is not helping, the behaviorism could use backward chaining and make sure Brenda performs the entire set of steps that has been learned to that point. Keep in mind that when using chaining, the steps must be followed in specific order (3).

Two ways mastery level can be evaluated is by using the single-opportunity method and the multiple-opportunity method (4). Single- opportunity method is when no prompting or contrived reinforcement is used. When arena failed to complete one area successfully, she would be stopped.

This goes on for several days. Multiple-opportunity method is the same as the single method;; however, Brenda would be allowed to continue on even if one area is completed successfully. Case 2: The Case of Mrs.. Riley 1 .

Discuss the rationale for the behaviorist’s recommendation of a token economy system to help Mrs..