Clostridium Difficle case study
Subjects who are at Geiger risk of developing OUT are elder adults and the use of using a catheter; that may have been used in the subject’s surgery. The initial administration of Totalitarian Calculative was used to reduce the number of the patients’ drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of antibacterial drugs. Diacritical calculative should only be used to prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria . ) The administration of Totalitarian Calculative may have been the main factor for the Colostomies difficult Infection (CDC) In the patient, as the exposure to antibiotics has counted for roughly 95% of development of CDC.
This Is the most Important risk factor In the development of CDC. “The disruption of the normal flora caused by antibiotics allows C. difficult to colonize and overgrow within the gastrointestinal tract. Nearly every antibiotic has been implicated in leading to CDC, however broad spectrum antibiotics with anti-anaerobic activity appear to cause the greatest risk”.
Secondly, the CDC was most likely predisposed by the man’s advanced age . Production of antitoxin antibody by the patient protects against CDC; however, the ability to mount this immune response decreases with age, which would account for the severity and recurrence of CDC in the elderly.
Other known risk factors, such as duration of hospital stay or exposition to proton-pump Inhibitor might be discarded in our patient, since the CDC was diagnosed only after his 5th day as Inpatient, and no proton-pump Inhibitors were administered. ) In order for an infectious disease to spread, it must complete the so-called Chain of Infection, which is made of 6 parts: an infectious agent, a reservoir, a portal of exit, a mode of transmission, a portal of entry and a susceptible host. If only one of the parts is missing, the disease cannot spread. Colonization of Colostomies difficult occurs through the ingestion of spores and it may be caused by the direct contact by an infected persons feces, contact with a contaminated environment such as hospital beds, rails or hospital beds and from a health care worker with contaminated hands.
The patient could have been could have been infected from two different sources and these may Include the room the patient was in or either the health care workers looking after him. The health care worker may have not followed the proper reoccurred to maintain proper prevention and control.
C. difficult transmission from one person to another Is more prevalent than In contact with environmental spores . In hospitals wards and intensive care units 49% of sites contained C. difficult and 29% AT slates occupied Day asymptomatic careers. ) The primary means of transmission in Colostomies difficult is from person to person via fecal – oral route, the environment contamination and hand hygiene throughout the hospital. These may include direct contact by toilets, bed rails, towel racks and door knobs.
Patients who experience diarrhea with CDC spread spores into the hospital, and these spores are usually resistant to disinfectants that are commonly used in the hospital. Environmental contamination shows that the higher the levels of contamination, the higher the prevalence of C. difficult.
Nearly all hospitals rely on alcohol-based cleansers for hand hygiene and infection control but C. difficult are thought to be resistant to alcohol. This also may help promote more spore formation.
They can survive on dry surfaces for weeks and months on any environmental surface in a patient’s room or special care. In order to kill spores a chlorine bleach concentration of 1 is the only agent that effectively kills C. difficult on environmental surfaces. 5) There are many infection control strategies the hospital can introduce to help prevent the start of Colostomies difficult.
First step would be to prevent the ingestion of C.
difficult spores from the environment, cleaning hospitals in the correct regime, vaccinate animals and to prevent CDC if spores are ingested. If CDC has occurred you could also maintain the level of antibiotics induced, as this is the one of the major sis factors affecting CDC. In order for prevention control, health care workers need to follow the correct procedure for prevention control such as washing hand frequently with soap. This may physically help remove spores. This is also includes patients water scrubbing is essential to maintain infection.
Any patients with diarrhea should not prepare foods for others and if it is possible to use separate toilets.
Hypochlorite- based solution appears to be the best agent to clean patient’s rooms so this agent must be used before and after patients leave. All health care workers should wear loves and a gown before seeing each patient and disposing of the gloves appropriately so this can also infection control . 6) Pantomimic and intermediation are the two essential anti-infection agents utilized as a part of the medication of C difficult infection.
Intermediation is taken preferably as an oral; it is readily absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract and is usually well tolerated by the body with general side effects. Possible side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rashes, dizziness, unpleasant metallic taste and abdominal pain.
Pantomimic is only reserved for severe or life threatening cases of C. Office infection. It is for patients who are unable to tolerate Intermediation. Pantomimic is taken orally but is not properly absorbed in the body so it is secreted in the stool, which is an ideal treatment for C. Official infection.
In conclusion Intermediation and Pantomimic are equally as effective for the treatment of CDC, but Pantomimic is superior for treating patients with severe CDC and for patients who fail therapy with intermediation. 7) Nineteen days after the patient’s surgery, his condition deteriorated further. His temperature was SYS 2′ Ana ten leukocyte count was 31 2 x III/I. Cloudbursts causes toxin-mediated colitis. There are Pathogenic strains of C.
difficult and they produce two protein extortion: toxin A and toxin B.
These toxins injure the lining of the colon that can cause diarrhea, and inflammation. Toxin A activates macrophages and mast cells (two different sub-types of white cells). The activation of these cells causes the production of inflammatory mediators. Toxin B has little intervention activity but is extremely toxic. C.
difficult toxins also cause leukocyte checkmates and the up regulation of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators . Consequently, there is a profound colonic inflammatory response, which would explain the high leukocyte count.