Hinduism Study Guide
Ciara Dela Cruz Father Gray World Religions/Chapter 1 notes 7 April 2013 Chapter 3: Hinduism * Murti- statue of a Hindu deity in which the god is present * Sanatana Dharma- term Hindus use to refer to their religion life; it translates roughly as “eternal law” or “eternal virtue. * Dharma- in Buddhism, refers generally to the teachings of the Buddha and is also the natural law that the universe follows * Caste system- divides people into separate social groups that have varying rights, responsibilities, professions, and statuses * Sruti- means “scripture” in Sanskrit and refers to the Vedas as well as the other sacred texts of Hinduism * Smrti- refers in Sanskrit to sacred Hindu traditions, both orally and transmitted and written down * Puranas- often teach morality lessons or offer parables of right living in Hinduism * Puja- ritual by which Hindus connect with their gods and goddesses; can be held by a priest in a temple or by Hindu followers themselves at home * Vedas- the ancient texts brought to India by the Aryans around 2500 BCE and is also known as the most sacred texts of Hinduism * Upanishads- Vedic texts that focus on the relationship between the human and the divine * Brahman- original source of all things and the composition of the cosmos of Hinduism * Brahma- considered to be the creator of the world in Hinduism * Vishnu- the Hindu protector of the world * Shiva- the Hindu god of transformation and destruction that ultimately leafs to new creation * Brahmins- members of the priestly castle in the Hindu caste system * Ksatriyas- the warrior or governmental caste in the Hindu caste system * Vaisyas- caste of farmers, merchants, businesspeople, and professionals in the Hindu caste system * Sudras- laborers and servants in the Hindu caste system * Untouchables- aka outcastes, dalits, or scheduled castes represent a group below the four traditional caste systems * Jati- subcaste to the Hindu caste system Atman- true self; Hindus work to achieve understanding of atman * Moksha- experience of oneness with the entirety of creation * Maya- illusory, transient world that distracts Hindus from the universal truth that Brahman is in all things * Reincarnation- concept in which a soul moves from one being to another after death * Samsara- the wheel of time or cycle of rebirth and re-death * Karma- in both Hinduism and Buddhism is the effect of a person’s action; good actions result in good karma and bad actions result in bad karma * 4 Great Hindu Sayings: 1. That you are 2. I am Brahman 3. The Self is the Ultimate 4. Brahman is wisdom * Dharma has many meanings: 1.
Religion 2. Cosmic and timeless law 3. Application of cosmic law 4. Social responsibility 5. Virtuous life * 10 reincarnations of Vishnu 1. Matsya (the fish) 2.
Koorma (the tortoise) 3. Varaha (the boar) 4. Narasimha (the human-lion) 5. Vamana (the dwarf) 6. Parasurama (the angry man, Rama with an axe) 7.
Lord Rama (the perfect man, king of Ayodha) 8. Lord Krishna (the divine statesman) 9. Balarama (elder brother of Krishna) 10. Kalki (the mighty warrior) * Hindu art and architecture depict many gods and goddesses