Nature and Nurture
Nature refers to the total of all inherited characteristics in organisms. Nurture refers to the process by which living things are transformed by the surrounding factors through processes such as learning.
Perception is the interpretation of situations to come up with meaningful conclusions. These factors have contributed to the development of nature-nurture debate in order to establish how the effect occurs. The debate focuses on how nature influences the existence of human beings, animals, and how cultures have been influenced in their perceptions regarding the world. Various psychologists have established that nature plays a vital role in the transformation of genes, behavior, and reasoning in relation to various issues in the world. The debate developed because of the various interpretations relating to how nature influences organisms and various groups.
This paper explicates the nature-nurture debate in relation to humans, animals, and cultures. Human beings are not born with perceptions. The surrounding environment has a strong influence on human beings as they interact and learn new aspects. The behavior of human beings is determined by both nature and nurture factors because they complement each other. The debate establishes that human beings would develop perceptions about various situations depending on both the inherited and learned characteristics. Savulescu, Meulen, & Kahane (2011), intimate that human beings would develop additional attitudes as they interact with their surrounding environment.
The ability to adapt to the surrounding promotes faster interpretation of situations and various other matters. Conclusions would be drawn basing on both the nature and nature factors. This is due to the belief that it is hard to change inherited characteristics. For perceptions to develop among human beings, the brain must be kept from any factors such as stress. The brain should be allowed the freedom to wander about and weigh situations.
Perceptions among human beings are likely not to relate because of the varying nature characteristics. According to Rookes & Willson (2008) human beings are subjected to various situations where they face failures and somewhere they face success. Thus, perceptions would develop basing on the ability of humans to be resilient and tackle the situations. Nature characteristics might draw negative perceptions, but nurture characteristics such as determination could lead to development of a winning attitude. Development of perceptions is thus both dependent on the inherited and learnt characteristics. Humans continually develop perceptions aboutvarious things using their senses.
The debate provides that they should carefully use all thesenses when coming up with various conclusions in relation to their environment. This is vital because it provides room for both learnt and inherited characteristics to help them form opinions and conclusions thus perceptions. Senses are inherited from parents ad others come through learned experience from the environment. They thus communicate with each other in the course of their interactions. Some animals would coexist with others and develop enmity towards others.
Lustig & Baruch A. Brody (2008) intimate that animals identify their enemies and relations through their senses. They detect are able to interpret harmful actions and take cover quickly. In addition, animals continually respond to stimuli within their environment. Stimuli shapes their ultimate perceptions concerning various issues.
Rookes & Willson (2008) point out that negative stimuli would reduce the animal’s active interactions with the environment due to the perception that they could be exposed to trouble. Animals have the aspect of self-concious that is inherited and is vital in complementing nurture characteristics in interpretation of various situations. Nature and nurture factors lead to the development of emotions in animals eventually determining their perception. Animals regularly communicate with other hence developing an internal sense of analysis before settling on the best course of action. Animals would not develop similar perceptions because of the varying degrees of nature characteristics.
According to Crary (200) the nurture degree in various animals depends on the strength of the influencing factors. They would thus develop different perspectives depending on the ecological conditions they stay. Animals that are tamed by man and could cause harm later in case they develop a perception that they are being mistreated. Perception would thus influence the actions of various animals. They express their perceptions through actions because of the inability to communicate.
Through perception, animals are able to identify their favorable climatic conditions and adapt to the various conditions.Cultures have evolved over time. Individuals are born the culture and learn various aspects relating to cultural practises and actions that are desirable in the society. The nature factors of a given culture are passed onto the individual by parents and are expected to be followed to the later. At birth, individuals are exposed to beliefs which lead to further formation of perceptions. Adler & Gielen (2001) intimate that various cultural practices influence one’s perceptions.
Cultures aggregate and develop a common language which would promote communication and identity. The nature characteristics combine with tradition leading to the deveelopment of cultural superiority. Cultures tend to develop the perspective that thay have the best practices which need to be emulated by everyone. This is an inborn feeling that is limited to the locality of the given culture. According to Ryecroft & Moxon (2001), cultural interactions are vital in shaping these perceptions.
There would be inheritance of shared characteristics between the cultures that would facilitate the learning f new aspects of life. On would have a more positive perception in relation to other tribes. Continued interactions would promote cultural acceptability and movement to better practices. Crary (2001) asserts that cross-cultural interactions would be vital in determining individuals’ perceptions because of the different practices. In cases where individuals inherit cultural negativity and intolerance from their parents, there is a likelihood that they would not be shaped by the surrounding environment especially where conservatism is upheld. Individuals should be continuously taught and given practical ideas before resolving to draw conclusions in elation to others in the society.
Multicultural interactions that lead to the acquisition of new cultures and language shape the inherited characteristics leading to the development of various perceptions. Culture transformation ensures that positive perceptions are drawn in the judgement of various matters.In conclusion, the nature-nurture debates try to establish the relationship between the inherited characteristics and learnt characteristics. Human beings are born with characteristics that are vital to determining their perceptions concerning various matters. Inherited characteristics complement learned characteristics to ensure that strong perceptions are drawn. In cases where human beings interact with the environment and face undesirable results, they would develop negative perceptions if their inherited characteristics are not resilient.
Animals also develop perceptions in relation to various issues because of their natural characteristics gained from parents. They continually interact with the environment and respond to stimuli. In the course of response, they learn new characteristics and carefully settle in different ecological conditions. The reason for development of perspectives using the characteristics enables them to be safe in their environment. Inherited cultural beliefs would lead to development of conservative perception because of the feeling of superiority.
Multicultural interactions would give one a new learning experience thus ensuring that positive perceptions are settled upon. Perceptions would always vary because of the different nature factors. All these factors are vital because they complement each other in perception formation.