Smoking Habits Among College Students
Background Breastfeeding is universal, easily initiated and carried out without efforts by all mothers. Breast milk is the natural food of each and every species of mammals.
Nature starts preparation for the young long before it is born. The preparation is complete just before birth and the milk comes out when the baby suckles it. Breast milk is the single adequate food provided by the nature till the baby is able to chew and eat semi solid food which corresponds to about six months of age. Breastfeeding is the feeding of an infant or young child who is in the early stage of life (i. . the period of rapid growth) with breast milk directly from human breasts rather than from a baby bottle or other container i.
e. via lactation. Babies have a sucking reflex that enables them to suck and swallow milk. Mothers can breastfeed for six months or more without the addition of infant formula or solid food. Breastfeeding is the optimum way of providing ideal and nourishing food to infants for their healthy growth and development. Breast milk gives infants all the nutrients they need for healthy and adequate growth and their holistic physical and mental development.
It is safe and contains antibodies that help protect infants from common childhood illnesses. Breast milk has been found to provide the ideal balance of nutrients for optimal growth and development, and it is easily digestible by the baby. This is because the breasts produce colostrums, which is a thick, yellowish fluid that helps a newborn’s digestive system develop and function properly. Many common childhood illnesses can also be prevented by nursing as breast milk contains antibodies that pass from the mother to the baby for protection. This is called natural immunity.
Some of the common ailments that are decreased include bacterial meningitis, diarrhea, ear infections, and respiratory tract infections. Other, more severe conditions, such as sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and childhood leukemia, have been confirmed by research to have a reduced risk of development in babies who have been breastfed. For premature infants, human milk significantly shortens the duration of their hospital stay, hastens brainstem maturation, and reduces the risk of life-threatening diseases. A mother’s breast milk is unique in both its composition and function, and cannot currently be reproduced by other manmade substance.Exclusive breastfeeding: Human milk provides optimal benefits for infants, including premature and sick newborns. Human milk is unique.
Superior nutrients and beneficial substances found in human milk cannot be duplicated. Breastfeeding provides optimum health, nutritional, immunologic and developmental benefits to newborns as well as protection from postpartum complications and future disease for mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding means the child receives no liquids or solids other than breast milk, except vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicines for the first six months.Partial breastfeeding means the child receives some breast milk, regardless of how much. Breast milk provides all nutrients in correct amount to satisfy hunger and thirst of infant up to 6 months of age. Exclusive breastfeeding results in less number of diarrhoea among infants.
The World Health Organization (WHO) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) emphasize the value of breastfeeding for mothers as well as children. Both recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and then supplemented breastfeeding for at least one year and up to two years or more.According to World Health Organization (WHO), breast milk promotes sensory and cognitive development and protects the infant against infectious and chronic diseases. WHO also said that exclusive breastfeeding reduces infant mortality due to common childhood illnesses such as diarrhea, pneumonia and helps in quick recovery from illness. Public Health Significance of Breastfeeding: Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and prevention of childhood infections.
According o Lancet, a medical journal, optimal breastfeeding in the first two years of life can have the single largest impact on child survival.It is the foremost preventive intervention. Breastfeeding has the potential to prevent 12 to 15 per cent deaths among children under five in the developing world; and breastfeeding within the first hour after delivery can reduce neo-natal mortality by around 20 percent. Breastfeeding is the best investment i. e.
investing in infant and mothers’ health, investing in family budgets, investing in healthcare savings and thus investing in healthy environment Advantages of Breastfeeding: Constituents of Breast milk |Importance | |Colostrums – Infants first vaccine | | |Property: | | |Antibody-rich |protects against infection and allergy | |Many white cells |protects against infection | |Purgative |clears me conium; helps prevent jaundice | |Growth factors |helps intestine mature; prevents allergy | |Vitamin-A rich |reduces severity of some infection (such | | |as measles and diarrhoea); prevents vitamin A-related eye diseases | |High % of lactose |stimulates Lactobacillus bifidus | |Lactoferrin |binds iron ; inhibits growth of E. oli, staphylococci ; Candida albicans| | |bacteriostatic against enterobacteria ; staphylococcus species | |Lysozyme |kills streptococci ; enteric bacteria | |Lactoperoxidase |effective against intestinal bacteria | |Secretory IgA |involved in phagocytosis ; synthesis of bacteriostatic proteins: | |Macrophages |Lactoferrin, Lysozyme ; complements | | |protective against E. oli, rubella ; mumps viruses | |T-lymphocytes | | Breast milk is the best for the Infant because: ? It contains all necessary nutrients, which is essential for infant growth and development. ? It is well digested and completely absorbed, which helps the brain and body development. ? Studies show that it saves many lives, in view of reducing incidence of diarrhea, respiratory infections, and ear infections.
?Contains antibodies that are passed to the infant, so that breast fed children get sick less often, and get less fever, urinary tract infections, childhood lymphoma, allergic diseases and diabetes. ? Raises children I. Q. Bonding and closeness to the mother causes psychological security and stability in infancy and later on in the life. ? Helps women to reduce the weight, which they put on during pregnancy. ? Protects women’s health.
It reduces the chance of getting breast and ovarian cancers, anemia, and osteoporoses. It also reduces the chance of developing such diseases by the daughter as an adult late in life. ? Psychological advantages a. Fosters mother-child relationship b. Tactile contact makes babies more secure, emotionally stable c.
A sense of fulfillment, satisfaction ; joy for the mother ? Protective against a. Necrotizing enterocolitis b. Otitis media c. Dental caries Others: a. Safe, contains no pathogens b.
Always at the right temperature c. Convenient ; always available Breastfeeding in Nepal Breast milk is the best nutrition for babies to achieve proper growth and development and is said to be the first immunization. Although breastfeeding is universal in Nepali culture, exclusive breastfeeding practice is not satisfactory. Only 53 % of children fewer than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. Just one in three children (35%) is breastfed within one hour of birth.
In 18% of cases, initiation of breast feeding is delayed for more than 24 hours (NMSS 1998). Percentage of exclusively breastfed children