Student Attitudes on Software Piracy and Related Issues in Computer Ethics Group 5 Joe Santiago Marvel Effulgence Erik Eng Sheens Spaces use of computers and information technology It can be defined as “copying and using commercial software purchased by someone else”.
COCCYX curricular guidelines Include a recommendation of 10 hours of Instruction on professional and ethical conduct Several textbooks have appeared on the market for use in courses on Computer Ethics Cohen and Cornwall (AAA) engaged in software piracy and they consider it legal Hushed (2000) determined that several actors that comprise national culture influence the probability that someone will engage in software piracy Kiln, Ironmonger and Planarian (2000) experience with computers but significantly affected by general demographic variables such as age Computer Ethics Works by Johnson (2001), Spoonbill (1997),Remain et. L. (1997), Forester and Morrison (1993).
Issues of Computer Ethics What is Software Piracy? Software piracy is defined as illegally copying software that does not belong to you in a manner that violates the copyright. (Anderson 1993) the ACM adopted a revised Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct for imputer professionals Bill Gates’ famous “An Open Letter to Hobbyists” he likened software piracy to outright theft. Wallace (1992) introduction of the IBM Personal Computer.
Business Software Alliance (2001) lost over $540 million in retail sales due to software piracy computer experience made no significant difference in their attitudes toward piracy Harris and Weaver (1994) found extended to ethical issues in computer use . Many software publishers allow users to download basic versions of programs such as Netscape Navigator, Relapse, Flash and witty.
Anapest – the digital music sharing program, became one of the more popular Internet applications. Woo introductory math classes, three introductory programming classes seven computer literacy class Previous surveys were conducted 0 Omitting questions of this type made it more difficult to identify the student completing the questionnaire and it made their answers more anonymous; therefore the student was likely to be more candid. 0 the classes surveyed were all introductory courses with roughly half and the other half at Saint Pewter’s College. Aziza (Terrible 2003) one of the most popular variety of music and file sharing programs that has succeeded after the courts forced the company to ND its music sharing service.
The survey was conducted in entry-level undergraduate courses Sims (1996) showed that younger students and male students are more likely to commit software piracy.
Coli (2001) the company estimating 10,000 users per second at peak times Schuster (1987) at western college and Cohen (1989) at mid western college o The survey also encompassed students at two schools: o Delphi University, a non-denominational school in Garden City, New York, o Saint Pewter’s College, a Catholic college located in Jersey City, New Jersey. Half of the classes surveyed did not have the additional questions; they served as a intro group to see if the presence of these questions affected their answers to the other questions. Results Students were asked their experience with computers and their usage. It shows clearly that most of the students were fairly familiar with computer usage and that even those with limited exposure used it for over a year. Most used it for their schoolwork, almost half used it on the Job and most used it for recreation as well.
O Limited exposure, but for more than a year o Extensive exposure, but less than a year no prior experience I use software… N my Job for classes I take for recreation Table 2 Student Perceptions of Software Piracy Total I think that most people copy commercial software instead of buying it. I think that most students copy commercial software I think that most professors copy commercial software instead of buying it.
I think that most administrators copy commercial I have copied commercial software instead of buying it. 78% 39% 36% 54% Students ask about their attitudes on copying software under different circumstances. In all but one case, the percentage of students agreeing with the statement differed by 2% or less.
In the case of copying software for educational preference, the difference was 15%. Table 3 Attitudes On Software Piracy Table 1 Computer Experience and Usage of Respondents My experience with computers includes..
. Daily use over more than a year thought most people copied software, as well as most students, most professors and most college administrators. Responses at the two schools were very close. In every case, the percentage of students agreeing with the statement never differed by more than 10%, most cases the difference was within 5%.
Similarly, the presence of the two questions about downloading music made no discernible difference in responses to he other questions. 1% 3% 2% I think it is okay: for people such as myself to copy commercial software instead of buying it when we use it for educational purposes.
For employees to copy commercial software to evaluate it for possible purchase. 74% 79% 2 There was no significant deviation in the data when the responses were categorized by school or by the presence or absence of the Anapest-related questions. Most students believed that it was appropriate to use University-owned software at home for University assignments and a majority felt that it was permissible even for arsenal use. While less than half of the respondents thought that it was always legal to copy commercial software, only a quarter of those asked thought that this was never legal. Attitudes About the Propriety and Legality of Copying Software Total It is okay to use University-owned software at home.
.. To complete University assignments for my personal use. 58% I think that it is legal for people such as myself to copy commercial software instead of buying it..
. Always 37% When used for school work Never 25% Shows the responses to questions about downloading music. The permission of the cording artist was not a significant factor in attitudes about downloading music. Table 5 Attitudes About Downloading Music to download music from the Internet to download music from the Internet if the musicians say it’s K Shows the responses to questions about three areas of privacy: the use of computer accounts belonging to others, access to confidential student records and access to names and addresses in university directories.
Half of the respondents thought that it was all right to use another student’s account with their permission and approximately a quarter of the respondents felt this way about viewing student cords if they were not changing them. It is interesting to note that 12% did not think that it was wrong to use someone else’s account without their permission and 10% thought that it was okay to look at and change confidential student records.
This compares with 8% who thought that it was all right to sell names and addresses from the university directory.
Table 6 Attitudes Toward Privacy to use another student’s computer account if the student agrees. To use another student’s computer account for a student to look at, but not change confidential student records for a student to look at and change confidential detent records for me to sell names and addresses from the University’s phone directory 27% It shows the responses to questions about the ethics of the use of computers by university employees for non-university activities. 5% of respondents thought that this was ethical for employees taking copies of programs that they had written for the University to their new Jobs. It is interesting to note that while 58% of respondents saw no ethical problem in using University computer’s for non-university activities, only 44% that that it was okay to use these same computers to run programs for their social organizations.
4% for faculty to use the University computer for non-University activities. For employees to take with them to their new Job copies of programs they have written for the University for University employees to run programs for their social organization on the University’s computer Table 8 Attitudes Toward Student Plagiarism and Related Activities for students to work together on computer assignments. Or students to give a copy of their work to another student to hand in for two students to share their work for a computer assignment and each hand in a copy 57% 8% Table 7 Attitudes Toward Faculty and Staff Ethics 2% Showed the responses to questions regarding student plagiarism and related activities. Most of the students felt that it was all right for students to work together on assignments and roughly a quarter felt the same way about giving a classmate a copy of their own work to submit to the instructor.
A majority thought that it was all right for two students to work collaboratively on an assignment and for both of them to submit it.
45% shows the response to questions about the propriety of using university computers for personal benefit. Most respondents saw no problem with this if it had no adverse effect on others and significant percentage saw No problem doing this even if it had an either a minor adverse effect on others or regardless of its effect on others.
Table 9 Attitudes Toward The Propriety of Using University Computers For Personal Benefit It is okay to use the University’s computer for my personal benefit: 0 if it has no adverse effect on others 0 if it has only minor adverse effect on others 0 regardless of its effect on others 26% 3 Shows the response to questions about the propriety and legality of copying commercial software under various circumstances. Almost half felt that it was only remissive for backup and archival purposes, an attitude that conforms to the terms of most software licenses.
A quarter felt that it was always wrong to copy commercial software, while slightly more than half of the respondents thought that it was proper to copy software that they would never buy or to copy it for trial purposes. Table 10 Attitudes About The Propriety and Legality Of Copying Software Under Various Circumstances Here is what I believe about people copying commercial software that belongs to others: It is always wrong.
L shouldn’t copy it, but the purchaser may make copies for backup and archive purposes. It is okay for me to use this copied software if I would not buy it anyway. It is okay for me to “try out” software so long as I buy it if I keep on using it In the United States, there are four nonexclusive factors that must be considered if the fair use exception applies: 1. The purpose and character of the use; 2. The nature of the copyrighted work; 3. The amount and substantially of the portion used in relation to the whole work; 4.
The effect that the use may have on the potential market or value of the work (US copyright Law 1993). 63% Some of these misconceptions are quite popular and have been debunked (Templeton 2004):