The History of Space
It all started about 13.7 billion years ago. This is when the universe was created. The universe was a fascinating place full of mystery. The universe is the total existence, including galaxies, planets, and stars.
Basically the universe is all matter and energy. I will be telling you how the universe was created, some information about the different things that occur throughout the universe, and how the universe has changed. First I will be explaining how the universe was created, or has been thought to be created by. The big bang is a theory that describes how the universe was developed. Because the universe was in an extremely hot and dense state, it started to expand rapidly. When the initial expansion was over the universe started cooling significantly, and the stored energy started to form subatomic particles.
Over thousands of years the subatomic particles started forming the first elements. Many astronomers believe that about 1 microsecond after the big bang, the universe had a temperature of about 1013 K ; However, at the same time the universe that we now see was packed into a volume smaller than the earths orbit. Many different theories of subatomic particles predict that a tiny excess of quarks, literally, on in a billion, survived with no antiquark to annihilate.The universe was able to become what it is today because of the tiny imbalance in the annihilation of quarks.By then space had been filled with matter and radiation, continuing to expand, and for another five seconds it was still hot enough to create electron-positron pairs. Then in a few more seconds the universe had cooled to a few billion degrees and the creation of matter had ceased.
About three minutes after the big bang, when the expansion of space cooled the universe, one-quarter of the universe’s protons fused into helium. Different theories suggest that the universe was created by nothing, others think that there may be other universes forever separated from our own, and more versions of this theory suggests that space has as many as 11 different dimensions. So far the big bang theory is what we know to be the creation of the universe and all matter. Some of the things that happen throughout the universe are unexplainable, but I will explain some of the things that we do know about the universe. First off I would like to talk about what effects the brightness of a star. Here is a list of three variables that effect the brightness of a star: temperature, size, and distance.
The distance and size both play an important part in the brightness. The brightness of a star is proportional to 1 divided by its distance squared. If a star is small in size, like ours, compared to other stars, but its further out than many others, we might not be able to see it without a telescope. Next I would like to explain what a light spectra is and how it’s used. A spectrum is the range of of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation.
Electromagnetic radiation waves come in a broad spectrum of wavelengths, energies, and frequencies. The electromagnetic spectrum is broken up into different categories, each share certain properties. Each atom has a set of electron orbits and the atoms energy determines what energy level the atoms move in. If an atom changes to a different energy level, the energy of the atom itself changes to the difference in energy between two levels. However, the attraction between the electron and the nucleus draws the electron back almost immediately, and if the electron goes down a level the atom’s energy is decreased.
While the atom’s energy decreases, the energy lost appears as light. We can calculate what type of wavelength it is because of the appearance of light. Every element has its own “fingerprint” meaning that no element is the same as the next. Using a telescope to obtain a spectrum, we can measure a wavelength and identify its lines. The best way to find these lines is from when the light gets emitted from the atom, the information can be sent to a computer to determine what type of element it is being emitted from.
Then we can tell what the planet or celestial body is made from and what percentage of that element is in it. One question many people ask is what effects the amount of gravity an object has. An object’s gravity comes from its mass. every object exerts its own gravitational pull towards all other objects. Because of this effect all of our planets within the solar system can stay in orbit.
This is only a small part of the effects the universe has within space. In the future, three things could happen to our universe. The first thing that could happen is the universe could just keep expanding forever and eventually the stars would “consume” all of their hydrogen and burn out, leaving the universe black. The second thing that could happen is the universe could keep expanding and eventually stop and stay that way forever. The final thing that could happen is when the universe is done expanding it could start to contract all of the matter together and form another big bang, which would keep expanding and contracting over and over again.
These three reasons are what we know, so far, that can happen to the universe in the future. From 13.7 billion years ago to today, we have only learned a small point of our entire universe and as our technology gets better we learn more and more about it. Maybe someday we can learn all there is to know about the universe, but until then, I guess, it will remain a mystery.