Unit 6 Study Guide
Anatomy Review Sheet – Muscles (Be sure to use the muscle notes in the lecture folder to help you complete this assignment). 1. Name the three types of muscles. • The three types of muscles are smooth, cardiac, and skeletal. 2. What is the muscle made up of that allows for muscle contraction? • At the end of each motor neuron there are tiny vesicles that store chemicals called neurotransmitters that stimulate the muscle to contract.
3. What is the part of #2 that extends out? • The plate that is densely branched. This allows them to attach to many muscle fibers. . What is the nerve cell that connects to several muscle fibers called? • Motor neuron. 5.
There are two types of protein filaments that make up a myofibril.
1. Which one is thick? Myosin. 2. Which one is thin? Actin. 6.
What are the chemicals called that stimulate the muscle to contract? • Neurotransmitters 7. What is the specific chemical from question 6 in muscles? • Acetylcholine. 8. Where are these chemicals stored? • Mitochondria in the muscle cells. 9.
What is the combination of the motor neuron and the muscles it controls called? • Motor Unit. 0. What is the energy storing molecule found in the mitochondrion? • ADP which is converted into ATP is what is found in the mitochondrion. 11. What happens if there is a lack of the chemical in the previous question? • Muscle cramp.
12. What is the chemical that builds up in muscles caused by strenuous exercise? • The chemical that builds up in your muscles is called lactic acid. 13. What is the pigment that causes blood to be red? • Hemoglobin is what causes the blood to be red. 14.
What is the pigment that causes muscle to be brown? • Myoglobin. 15.
What causes the discoloration and swelling in a muscle strain? • The cause that makes discoloration and swelling in a muscle stain is due to ruptured blood vessels. 16. What happens to the body after death where ATP is decreased and muscles cannot relax? • After 72 hours the body the muscles undergo partial contraction.
Calcium ions permeate membranes, decreases ATP, which prevents relaxation. 17. What is a contraction then sudden relaxation of a muscle cause by a single stimulus?
• It is called a twitch. 18. What is the delay between the time the stimulus was applied and the time the muscle responded called? The delay between the time the stimulus was applied and time the muscle responded is called latent period.
19. What is partially inflamed and swollen tendons called? • This is called tendonitis, and literally means inflammation of the tendon. 20. What is the immovable end of a muscle called? • The immovable end of a muscle is called the origin. 21.
What is the movable end of a muscle called? • The movable end of a muscle is called the insertion. 22. What is an inherited disorder which causes the collapse of muscles called? • Muscular dystrophy.