A Study on Work Stress Among Women Employee
50 Pacific Business Review International Pacific Volume 5 Issue 2 (August 2012) Business Review International A Study on Stress Management among Women College Teachers in Tamilnadu, India DR. J.
VIJAYADURAI*, MR. S. VENKATESH** Stress at work can be a real problem to the organization as well as for its workers. Good management and good work organization are the best forms of stress prevention. If employees are already stressed, their managers should be aware of it and know to help.
Work related stress is the response people may have when present with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope. Stress occurs in a wide range of work circumstances but is often made worse when employees feel they have little support from supervisors and colleagues and where they can cope with its demands and pressures. There is often confusion between pressure or challenge and stress and sometimes it is used to excuse bad management practice.
In the workplace and at home, stress and other difficult situation are at an all- time high. Factors such as job insecurity, long hours, continuous change and unrealistic deadlines can cause serious problem for workers. The aim and goal of the paper is to know the various factors to stimulate stress level among women teachers in college level.
Workplace stress occurs when there is an imbalance the demands and perceived pressures of the work environment and an individual ability to cope.
An individual’s experience of stress at work is to a large extent affected by the level of control they have over their working condition / pressures, the degree of support they receive from others in the workplace and the strategies they use to respond to work pressures. Keywords – Stress, Women college teachers, Causes and consequences Introduction Nowadays stress becomes universal phenomenon. Abrol (1990) discussed about, Every person wants more and more for the attainment of pleasure, due to this competition is increased in every field of life and this competition generates stress among people no doubt the competition is must but we don’t gnore its result in the recent years as more and more women are coming to take on many jobs. But these women college teachers facing various challenges, one is stress and stress is one cause of coronary heart disease. Stress is common among the career women at workplace.
Nowadays the percentage of coronary heart disease is increased among Women College teachers the main causes are work related stress, value conflict, type of work, standard of living, nutrition, lack of physical exercise. Aditi and Kumari (2005) discussed in their research women teachers facing lot of problems like overweight, body ache, and psychosomatic effect etc.
These women working in under stress because of they have to perform various *Professor-MBA. , N. M.
S. S. Vellaichamy Nadar College,Madurai. Tamilnadu **Assistant professor-MBA, J. J.
College of Engineering and Technology,Tiruchirappalli,Tamilnadu Volume 5 Issue 2 (August 2012) roles. The expectation are high from women’s if they working as college teachers. They have the pressure of balancing work and family. All these factors influence in health-William (1991) and weib (1991) suggest about the health problem of career women. Bluementhol (1995) also investigated the job stress affect on health.
Sudan (1998) remarks that psychomatic disorders are increasing rapidly. It is a general belief in many cultures that the role of women is to build and maintain the homely affairs like task of fetching water, cooking and rearing children. Since the turn of the century, the status of women in India has been changing due to growing industrialization, urbanisation, spatial mobility and social legislation Anitha Devi (2007). With the spread of education and awareness, women have shifted from kitchen to higher level of professional activities. 51 Chantal Guimont, Chantal Brisson, Gilles R.
Dagenais, Alain Milot, Michel Vezina, Benoit Masse, Jocelyne Moisan, Nathalie Laflamme, and Caty Blanchette, (2006) have evaluated whether cumulative exposure to job strain increases blood pressure through A prospective study of 8395 white-collar workers was initiated during 1991 to 1993. At follow-up, 7. 5 years later, 84% of the participants were reassessed to estimate cumulative exposure to job strain. Results. Compared with men who had never been exposed, men with cumulative exposure and those who became exposed during follow-up showed significant systolic blood pressure increments of 1.
mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI]=0. 1, 3. 5) and 1. 5 mm Hg (95% CI=0. 2, 2. 8), respectively, and relative risks of blood pressure increases in the highest quintile group of 1.
33 (95% CI = 1. 01, 1. 76) and 1. 40 (95% CI = 1. 14, 1.
73). Effect magnitudes were smaller among women. Effects tended to be more pronounced among men and women with low levels of social support at work. Results showed that Among these white-collar workers, exposure to cumulative job strain had a modest but significant effect on systolic blood pressure among men.
The risk was of comparable magnitude to that observed for age and sedentary behavior.
Men and women with low levels of social support at work appeared to be at higher risk for increases in blood pressure. Christopher Gilbers. , (2003), reviews evidenced that normalizing breathing patterns may offer help in some cases of essential hypertension, angina, functional chest disorder, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), and cardiac rehabilitation, Hyperventilation and hypo-ventilation. His article states that inhibited breathing, and breathing volume is closely matched to metabolic needs.
Such disordered breathing has varying effects on acid base balance, arterial diameter, and sodium retention by the kidneys. Therefore, a chronic breathing imbalance can contribute to path physiology, which may be remediable to an extent by altering habitual breathing patterns.
Review of Literature Els Clays, Francoise Leynen, Dirk De Bacquer, Marcel Kornitzer, France Kittel, Robert Karasek, Guy De Backer, (2007) The aim of their study was to assess whether job strain is associated with 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure measurements within a subsample of the Belgian Job Stress Project (BELSTRESS) population.
Methods: A group of 89 middle-aged male and female workers perceiving high job strain and an equally large group of workers perceiving no high job strain wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor for 24 hours on a regular working day. Results: Mean ambulatory blood pressure at work, at home, and while asleep was significantly higher in workers with job strain as compared with others. The associations between job strain and ambulatory blood pressure were independent from the covariates.
Conclusions: Within this study, high job strain was an important independent risk factor for higher ambulatory blood pressure at work, at home, and during sleep in a group of men and women.
52 Hodson, R. and Chamberlain, L. J,(2003) Job stress is a problem for both workers and organizations. It undercuts meaning and joy in work, has negative health consequences, and reduces organizational effectiveness. Understanding the full range of determinants of job stress has been difficult, however, because in-depth information on both jobs and organizations is difficult to acquire.
The current article makes use of a new data set based on content coding job, organizational, and job stress information from the full population of published book-length organizational ethnographies (N=125). This new data set allows the simultaneous exploration of both organizational and joblevel determinants of job stress. The analysis confirms the long-established importance of job autonomy as a positive factor in reducing stress. New findings include positive roles for organizational coherence and local ownership.
Finally, the effects of some job stressors are mediated by social involvement in the workplace, both through informal coworker relations and through more formal participation programs.
Overall, organizational effects on stress are as significant or more significant than job effects suggesting the importance of giving further attention to organizational characteristics as a less examined set of determinants of job stress. Susan Gill, Marilyn J Davidson. (2001), investigated a large sample of German and British managers selected from the private and public sectors completed the Pressure Manage Indicator (PMI), through a 12- item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI provides a global measure as well as differentiated profiles of occupational stress. Outcome measures include work satisfaction, organizational security, organizational satisfaction, and commitment, as well as physical well-being (physical symptoms and exhaustion) and psychological health (anxiety depression, worry and resilience).
In additional moderator variables are assessed including type a behaviour, internal focus of Pacific Business Review International control and coping strategies.
The data from the PMI show that, when compared with British managers, the German managers reported greater job satisfaction and lower levels of resilience. The German managers displayed substantially higher pressure from the homework interface but less pressure from the need to have their achievements recognized.
German managers reported higher levels of impatience (a subscale of type of behaviour), coupled with high internal control (extent to which individual feels able to influence and control events) and made more use of coping strategies especially problem-focused measures. Sheppard (1997), identified the effects of a stressmanagement programme in a high security government agency. 44 employees of a regional branch of a federal government agency volunteered to participate in a 3mo stress management programme. After a series of pretests, the SS were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups.
Transcendetal Meditation (TM) or an education control designated “Corporate Stress Management” (CSM ). After the 12 – week intervention period, and again after 32 years, SS were are administered same test battery. The 3- mo result reveled a reduction in anxiety and depression in the TM group. The 3- yr result suggested a reduction in anxiety, depression, and improved self-concept in the TM group. Mujtaba and McCartney (2007) State that research over the years has established this fact; the body and mind are consistently adjusting to ‘balance ‘and ‘equilibration’, the term used to indicate emotional balance, must be maintained.
Any change or threat to equilibrium can cause either eustress or distress. Objectives of the Study 1. To identify the various causes for stresses that affects the women teachers in the college atmosphere 2. To assess the perception of the personnel towards their Job Stress. Volume 5 Issue 2 (August 2012) 3.
To know the consequences of stress among women college teachers. 4. To identify the different ways in which the women teachers manage stress 5. To suggest ways to manage stress 53 The sampling used in this study is ‘Simple random sampling’ because the sample is selected with equal probability.
Sample Size Since the population for the survey is very large, and due to time limitation a sample size of 50 is taken for the survey with help of questionnaire Area of the Study The study is confined to Tamilnadu only.
Scope of the Study This study of the stress management depends on the women college teachers and then management. Because the stress related to work, family, decision, your future, and more. Stress is both physical and mental. It is caused by major life events such as illness, the death of a loved one, a change in responsibilities or expectation at work and increase job promotion, avoids loss, or changes in the organization.
Changing worker demographics (race/ethnicity, gender, and age) and worker safety and health Data Collection Primary Data Survey method is employed to collect the data from the respondents and the data are collected with the help of questionnaires.
Research Tools • Percentage analysis. • Chi-square test. • ANOVA Limitations Importance of the Study Stress underlies such diverse conditions as psychosomatic, heart diseases and can be a major contributor to disturbances in one’s emotional, social, company and family life.
It inhibits creativity and personal effectiveness and exhibits itself in a general dissatisfaction; there is great impact in women college teachers that end up with stress. Thus an attempt is made to assess the various dimensions of stress among Women college teachers As the research is restricted within tamilnadu, results are not applicable to other areas of India; Limited number of respondents has been chosen due to time constraint and this could affect the accuracy of result to certain extent; Data Analysis and Interpretations Percentage Analysis Table 1-Respondents Age Sl.
No 1. 2. 3. 4. Total Particulars 20-25 26-30 31-35 35 and Above Frequency Percentage 21 19 8 2 50 42 38 16 4 100 Methodology Research Design Exploratory Research Design It is being used for clear and precise investigation and information is gathered about practical problems on a particular conjectural statements.
Sampling Method Source: Primary Data 54 From the above table, it is clear that 42% respondents are in 20-25 age group, 38% respondents are in 26-30 age group, 12% respondents are in 31-35 age group, 4% respondents are in 35 & above age group. of of of of the the the the
Pacific Business Review International respondents are said (Rarely) insufficient challenging work and then remaining 70% respondents are said (Never) insufficient challenging work. Table 4 -Respondents Opinion Regarding Heavy Work Load Sl. No 1. 2. 3.
4. 5. Particulars Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never Total Source: Primary Data Table 2-Respondents Designation Sl. No 1. 2. 3.
4. Particulars Head of the dept. Professor Associate professor Assistant Professor Total Source: Primary Data Fre. 41 9 0 0 0 50 Per. (%) 82 18 0 0 0 100 Fre. 2 3 3 42 50 Per.
(%) 4 6 6 84 100
From the above table, it is clear that, 4% of the respondents fall under the category of head of the dept. ,6% of the respondents belongs to the category of professor,6% respondents belongs to the category of Associate professor,84% respondents belongs to the category of Assistant professor. From the above table, it is clear that, 82% respondents are said (Always) heavy work load, and then remaining 18% respondents are said (Often) heavy work load. Table 5 -Respondents Opinion Regarding Much Pressure To Target Sl. No 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. Particulars Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never Total Source: Primary Data
Table 3-Respondents Opinion Regarding Insufficient Challenging Work Sl. No 1.
2. 3. 4. 5. Particulars Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never Total Source: Primary Data Fre.
41 7 0 2 0 50 Per. (%) 82 14 0 4 0 100 Fre. 0 0 5 10 35 50 Per. (%) 0 0 10 20 70 100 From the above table, it is clear that, 10% respondents are said (some times) insufficient challenging work, 20% From the above table, it is clear that, 82% respondents are said (Always) much pressure to target, 14% respondents are said (Often) much pressure to target and then remaining 4% respondents are said (Rarely) much pressure to target.
Volume 5 Issue 2 (August 2012) Table 6 -Respondents Opinion Regarding Lack of Involvement In Decision Making Sl.
No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Particulars Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never Total Source: Primary Data 55 CHI – Square Test To Test Association Between Salary And Insufficient Challenging Work Fre.
0 0 2 14 34 50 Per. (%) 0 0 4 Null Hypothesis (Ho) There is no significant association between salary and insufficient challenging work. Alternative Hypothesis (H1) 28 68 100 There is significant association between salary and insufficient challenging work.
Table 8- (Salary * insufficient challenging work) Salary > 10,000 Rs. 11,000 to 20,000 Rs 21,000 to 30,000 Total Insufficient Challenging Work From the above table, it is clear that, 4% respondents are said (Sometimes) lack of involvement in decision making, 28% respondents are said (Rarely) lack of involvement in decision making and then remaining 68% respondents are said (Never) involvement in decision making. Some Times Rarely Never 5 0 0 5 10 0 0 10 25 8 2 35 Degrees of freedom: 4; Chi-square = 5.
35 Table 7 Respondents Opinion Regarding Sexual Problems Sl. No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Particulars Always Often Sometimes Rarely Never Total Source: Primary Data For significance at the . 05 level, chi-square should be greater than or equal to 9. 49. The distribution is not significant. Fre. 38 7 0 2 3 50 Per.
(%) 76 14 0 4 6 100 Inference Hence the x2 value is less than the table value we accept the null hypothesis and conclude that there is no significant association between salary and insufficient challenging work. To Test Association Between Qualification and Heavy Work Load Null Hypothesis (Ho): There is no significant association between qualification and Heavy work load.
From the above table, it is clear that, 76% respondents are said (Always) sexual problems, 14% respondents are said (Often) sexual problems, 4% respondents are said (Rarely) sexual problems and then remaining 6% respondents are said (Never) sexual problems. Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is significant association between qualification and Heavy work load. 56 Table 9- (Qualification * Heavy work load) Qualification Ph.
D M. Phil P. G 25 Total Heavy Work Load Total Always Often 7 9 0 41 0 9 25 9 50 7 18 Pacific Business Review International Degrees of freedom: 2 ;Chi-square = 19. 51 Table Value = 5. 9 ;The distribution is significant.
Inference Hence the x2 value is greater than the table value we reject the null hypothesis and conclude that there is significant association between qualification and Heavy work load ANOVA Analysing Factor: Insufficient Challenging Work Sum of Squares Heavy Work Load Between Groups Within Groups Total Pressure to take up the results Between Groups Within Groups Total Efforts are not Recognized Between Groups Within Groups Total Lack of Clarity about Role Between Groups Within Groups Total Lack of Autonomy Between Groups Within Groups Total 3. 394 3. 986 7. 380 2. 549 19.
071 21. 620 17. 77 13. 243 31. 220 3.
977 2. 743 6. 720 3. 714 4. 286 8.
000 df 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 Mean Square 1. 697 . 085 F 20. 013 Sig. .000 ** 1.
274 . 406 3. 140 .052 * 8. 989 . 282 31.
901 .000 ** 1. 989 . 058 34. 075 .000 ** 1.
857 . 091 20. 367 .000 ** Volume 5 Issue 2 (August 2012) 57 Lack of Involvement Between Groups Within Groups Total 3. 520 12. 000 15.
520 1. 449 13. 771 15. 220 . 137 3.
543 3. 680 4. 934 41. 886 46. 820 . 514 3.
986 4. 500 3. 234 6. 386 9. 620 8. 309 21.
471 29. 780 29. 429 31. 071 60. 500 12.
334 5. 186 17. 520 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 2 47 49 . 760 . 255 6. 893 .
002 ** Organizational Change Between Groups Within Groups Total .724 . 293 2. 472 .095 * Good Working Environment Between Groups Within Groups Total .069 .
075 .910 .410 Between Groups Good Relationship With Head of the Within Groups department Total Good Relationship Between Groups with Colleagues Within Groups Total Unsatisfactory Work Between Groups Within Groups Total Sleeping Problems Between Groups Within Groups Total Sexual Problems Between Groups Within Groups Total Financial Problems Between Groups Within Groups Total 2. 467 . 891 2. 768 .
073 * .257 . 085 3. 032 .058 * 1.
17 . 136 11. 902 .000 ** 4. 154 . 457 9.
094 .000 ** 14. 714 . 661 22. 257 .000 ** 6.
167 . 110 55. 895 .000 ** 58 Pacific Business Review International Increase absence in Job Between Groups Within Groups Total .514 3.
986 4. 500 . 994 9. 086 10. 080 • 2 47 49 2 47 49 .
257 . 085 3. 032 .058 * Look for Promotion Between Groups Within Groups Total .497 . 193 2.
572 .087 * ** Significant at 0. 01 percent level * Significant at 0. 05 percent level. Inference From the above ANOVA table it is inferred that 16 factors are considered as depending variable for the analyzing variable insufficient challenging work.
Out of 16 factors 15 factors are significant with the analyzing variable. The factor good working environment is not significant with the analyzing factor. • • Findings • • • It was found that 82 % of respondents always have heavy work load within the organization. It has been found that 82 % of respondents have much pressure to take up the result It has been found that Majority of the respondents have opinion that their efforts are always not recognized in the Institution. It has been found that 76 % of respondents have always sexual problems within the organization.
Majority of 92% the respondents are always satisfied with good working environment. According to the chi-square analysis, it is found that, there is no significant association between the salary of the respondents and insufficient challenging work. According to the chi-square analysis, it is found that, there is no significant association between the qualification of the respondents and heavy work load. According to the chi-square analysis, it is found that, there is no significant association between the qualification of the respondents and look for promotion.
According to the chi-square analysis, it is found that, there is no significant association between the designation of the respondents and efforts are not recovered or recognized.
Above According to the chi-square analysis, it is found that, there is no significant association between the salary of the respondents and financial problem. Suggestions • If the institution concentrate and give more importance to financial problems, Unsatisfactory Work, working environment the level of depression rate will be reduced comparing with the present level.
Since the individual often get into stress due to organization changes, proper communication should be given to reduce such stress. Seek professional help when appropriate. Employee can exercise regularly and get enough sleep. Make time to enjoy an activity outside the work place.
If you dislike something at home or work, try to change those things that bother you. “Griping” doesn’t solve much. Maintain a positive attitude; this will make it easier to live and work with others. Learn about the • • • • • • • • Volume 5 Issue 2 (August 2012) various relaxation methods available to help you ease your daily tensions.
Do activities that help you feel relaxed and content (e. g.
, taking a brisk walk, stretching, or imagining you are in a favorite place). 59 Alain Milot, Michel Vezina, Benoit Masse, Jocelyne Moisan, Nathalie Laflamme, and Caty Blanchette, (2006), – Effects of Job Strain on Blood Pressure: A Prospective Study of Male and Female White-Collar Workers Christopher Gilbers. , (2003), “Reviews Evidence Normalizing Breathing Patterns” All India Institute of Medical Science, New Delhi. Hodson, R. and Chamberlain, L.
J, 2003 “Sources of Reduced Job Stres Organizational Coherence, Local Ownership and Worker Involvement” Susan Gill, Marilyn J Davidson. (2001), “Organizational Job Satisfaction”, University of Florida Sheppard. , (1997), “Stress Management”, Human Relations, New Delhi. Mujtaba and McCartney, (2007), “Research over the situations begins stress” New Book, Publication, New Delhi. “The Icfaian Journal management”, Research Vol VII No-12 Dec 2008. • Consulsion • Work stress is a real challenge for college teachers and their employing institution.
As institution and their working environment transform, so do the kinds of stress problems that employees may face.
It is important that your workplace is being continuously monitored for stress problems. Further, it is not only important to identify stress problems and to deal with them but to promote healthy work and reduced harmful aspects of work. Work in itself can be a self can be a self-promoting activity as long as it takes place in a safe, development and health- promoting environment. • Successful employers and managers provide leadership in dealing with the challenge of work stress.
References Abrol, K. K. , 1990, A study of Language Strain and Coping behaviours of Teachers, Psycholingua, 20: 173-178.
Aditi, N. and Kumari, B. , 2005, Impact of personality patterns and employment status on psychological stress tolerance of women in Kerala.
Indian Psy. Rev. , 64(2): 103- 108. Anitha Devi, S. , 2007, Occupational stress: A comparative study of women indifferent occupations.
Prajnan, 35(1):61-74. Els Clays, Francoise Leynen, Dirk De Bacquer, Marcel Kornitzer, France Kittel, Robert Karasek, Guy De Backer, (2007) High Job Strain and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged Men and Women From the Belgian Job Stress Study Chantal Guimont, Chantal Brisson, Gilles R. Dagenais,